glandular differentiation

glandular differentiation

The appearance in a carcinoma of glands and gland-like elements which, in an adenoCA, indicates some maturation, which generally is associated with a better prognosis
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Much like the more common MMMTs of ovarian and endometrial origin, MMMTs of the fallopian tube show carcinomatous elements with predominantly glandular differentiation which may assume endometrioid, clear cell, and papillary serous patterns; less commonly, squamous differentiation or undifferentiated carcinomas may be seen.
5,6) The differential diagnosis of a lesion exhibiting glandular differentiation in the bladder includes benign entities, putative precursor lesions, primary malignancies, and secondary malignancies.
The grading system of bladder adenocarcinomas is based on the degree of glandular differentiation and nuclear pleomorphism (well, moderate, and poorly differentiated).
By definition, ACCCC does not show ductal or glandular differentiation typical of sweat gland neoplasms and some morphologic/immunophenotypic features are reminiscent of the differentiation of the follicular isthmus of the innerouter root sheath.
11,12) As such, they have been classified together with other neoplasms that show both neuroendocrine and glandular differentiation.
Urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma with glandular differentiation
In addition to inverted urothelial papilloma, which can sometimes have cystic areas, the differential diagnosis of these related lesions centers on variants of invasive urothelial carcinoma that have glandular features, including invasive urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation, the microcystic variant, and the tubular variant, as well as invasive adenocarcinoma.
The prevailing theories on its histogenesis include the following: (1) these tumors arise from mullerian elements in the urinary bladder and are histogenetically identical to CCA arising in the female genital tract (5); (2) CCA of the urinary bladder is a variant of vesical adenocarcinoma of mesonephric derivation; and (3) CCA is a morphologic expression of urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma with glandular differentiation.
Synovial sarcomas may have cytokeratin and vimentin positivity; however, the tumor cells are usually less pleomorphic, are oval to spindled, and often show areas of glandular differentiation, unlike ES.
Rare periodic acid-Schiff, postdiastase digestion periodic acid-Schiff, and mucicarmine-positive intracytoplasmic material (Figure 3, b) was demonstrated in some tumor cells, which suggested glandular differentiation.
Dugan et al[TM] reported that HER-2/neu gene expression is not common in tumors that lack glandular differentiation and suggested that the pattern of the HER-2/neu expression is related to glandular differentiation and early oncogenesis.
1] Dual endocrine and glandular differentiation has led to confusion in the nomenclature (adenocarcinoid,[2] crypt cell carcinoma,[3] and mucinous carcinoid[4]) and management of such lesions.