granuloma

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granuloma

 [gran″u-lo´mah] (pl. granulomas, granulo´mata)
an imprecise term applied to (1) any small nodular, delimited aggregation of mononuclear inflammatory cells, or (2) a similar collection of modified macrophages resembling epithelial cells, usually surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes, often with multinucleated giant cells. Some granulomas contain eosinophils and plasma cells, and fibrosis is commonly seen around the lesion. Granuloma formation represents a chronic inflammatory response initiated by various infectious and noninfectious agents.
apical granuloma modified granulation tissue containing elements of chronic inflammation located adjacent to the root apex of a tooth with infected necrotic pulp.
actinic granuloma an annular lesion seen on skin chronically exposed to the sun, with a raised border and a center that appears normal but is actually elastotic.
benign granuloma of thyroid chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland, converting it into a bulky tumor that later becomes extremely hard.
coccidioidal granuloma the secondary stage of coccidioidomycosis.
dental granuloma one usually surrounded by a fibrous sac continuous with the periodontal ligament and attached to the root apex of a tooth.
eosinophilic granuloma
2. a disorder similar to eosinophilic gastroenteritis, characterized by localized nodular or pedunculated lesions of the submucosa and muscle walls, especially of the pyloric area of the stomach, caused by infiltration of eosinophils, but without peripheral eosinophilia and allergic symptoms.
granuloma fissura´tum a firm, whitish, fissured, fibrotic granuloma of the gum and buccal mucosa, occurring on an edentulous alveolar ridge and between the ridge and the cheek.
foreign-body granuloma a localized histiocytic reaction to a foreign body in the tissue.
giant cell reparative granuloma, central a lesion of the jaws composed of a spindle cell stroma punctuated by multinucleate giant cells, considered by most to be a central lesion of the bone of the jaws, presenting an inflammatory reaction to injury or hemorrhage. Some, however, consider it to be a giant cell tumor occurring in both benign and malignant forms, and others consider it to be a form of osteogenic sarcoma, varying in degree of malignancy.
granuloma inguina´le a granulomatous disease that is associated with uncleanliness and is caused by the microorganism Calymmatobacterium granulomatis (sometimes called a Donovan body). Called also granuloma venereum. Although granuloma inguinale is often considered to be a venereal disease, research does not support the hypothesis that it is transmitted by sexual contact. It is possible that natural resistance to the disease is high, so that only a few of the persons exposed are affected. About 10 days to 3 months may elapse after exposure until appearance of the first symptoms, usually small painless ulcers that bleed easily. Swelling in the groin may then follow. A new ulcer or ulcers may appear as the old one heals, so that granuloma inguinale may eventually cover the reproductive organs, buttocks, and lower abdomen, with extensive sores and a foul odor. As persons who have the disease seem to develop little immunity to it, granuloma inguinale can be present for many years.

Treatment of the disease may be with streptomycin. tetracyclines, or lincomycin. There is no known preventive for granuloma inguinale, although it is rare where sanitary living conditions prevail. The drainage from lesions may be infectious and handwashing and basic cleanliness are required. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends standard precautions.
lipoid granuloma xanthoma.
lipophagic granuloma a granuloma attended by the loss of subcutaneous fat.
Majocchi's granuloma trichophytic granuloma.
midline granuloma a rare disease of unknown etiology, characterized by granulomatous lesions of the nasal mucosa, sinuses, palate, and pharynx. Massive, progressive, erosive lesions that destroy the involved soft tissue, cartilage, and bone and sometimes extend to the brain are typical. Untreated cases are fatal (lethal midline granuloma).
paracoccidioidal granuloma paracoccidioidomycosis.
peripheral giant cell reparative granuloma giant cell epulis.
pyogenic granuloma a benign, solitary nodule resembling granulation tissue, found anywhere on the body, commonly intraorally, usually at the site of trauma as a response of the tissues to a nonspecific infection.
sarcoid granuloma the granuloma seen with sarcoidosis, consisting of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by macrophages and epithelioid cells derived from macrophages.
swimming pool granuloma a chronic granulomatous bacterial infection caused by contamination of an abrasion sustained in a swimming pool by Mycobacterium marinum, which histologically and clinically resembles tuberculosis. It tends to heal spontaneously within a few months to 2 years.
granuloma telangiecta´ticum a form characterized by numerous dilated blood vessels.
trichophytic granuloma a form of tinea corporis seen mainly on the lower legs, due to infection of hairs by the fungus Trichophyton; characteristics include raised, circumscribed, boggy granulomas that are disseminated or arranged in chains. Lesions are slowly absorbed or undergo necrosis, leaving depressed scars. Called also Majocchi's granuloma.
granuloma tro´picum yaws.
granuloma vene´reum granuloma inguinale.

gran·u·lo·ma

(gran'yū-lō'mă),
Term applied to nodular inflammatory lesions, usually small or granular, firm, persistent, and containing compactly grouped modified phagocytes (for example, epithelioid cells, giant cells, and other macrophages).
See also: granulomatosis.
[granulo- + G. -oma, tumor]

granuloma

/gran·u·lo·ma/ (gran″u-lo´mah) pl. granulomas, granulo´mata   an imprecise term for (1) any small nodular delimited aggregation of mononuclear inflammatory cells, or (2) such a collection of modified macrophages resembling epithelial cells, usually surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes.
actinic granuloma  a round lesion with a raised border seen on skin chronically exposed to sunlight.
granuloma annula´re  a benign, self-limited disease consisting of round granulomas of the dermis in groups, with papules or nodules, mainly seen in young girls.
apical granuloma  modified granulation tissue containing elements of chronic inflammation, located adjacent to the root apex of a tooth with infected, necrotic pulp.
coccidioidal granuloma  secondary coccidioidomycosis.
eosinophilic granuloma 
2. a disorder similar to eosinophilic gastroenteritis, with localized nodular or pedunculated lesions of the submucosa and muscle walls, especially of the pyloric area of the stomach, caused by infiltration of eosinophils, but without peripheral eosinophilia or allergic symptoms.
granuloma fissura´tum  a firm, red, fissured, fibrotic granuloma of the gum and buccal mucosa of an edentulous alveolar ridge between the ridge and cheek; caused by an ill-fitting denture.
infectious granuloma  one due to a specific microorganism, as tubercle bacilli.
granuloma inguina´le  a granulomatous venereal disease, usually seen in dark-skinned people, marked by purulent ulceration of the external genitals, caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.
lethal midline granuloma  a rare lethal necrotizing granuloma that destroys the midface; it is nearly always preceded by longstanding nonspecific inflammation of the nose or nasal sinuses, with purulent, often bloody discharge.
lipoid granuloma  xanthoma.
lipophagic granuloma  granuloma with loss of subcutaneous fat.
midline granuloma  lethal midline g.
paracoccidioidal granuloma  paracoccidioidomycosis.
peripheral giant cell reparative granuloma  giant cell epulis.
pyogenic granuloma  a benign, solitary nodule resembling granulation tissue, found anywhere but often in the mouth, usually at the site of trauma as a tissue response to nonspecific infection.
reticulohistiocytic granuloma  a solitary reticulohistiocytoma that is not associated with systemic involvement.
sarcoid granuloma  the granuloma seen with sarcoidosis.
swimming pool granuloma  one that complicates injuries sustained in swimming pools, attributed to Mycobacterium balnei, often healing spontaneously over time.
trichophytic granuloma  tinea corporis, usually on the lower legs, due to Trichophyton infecting hairs at the site, with raised, circumscribed, boggy granulomas, scattered or in chains; lesions are slowly absorbed, or undergo necrosis, leaving scars.

granuloma

(grăn′yə-lō′mə)
n. pl. granulo·mas or granulo·mata (-mə-tə)
Any of various nodular masses of granulocytic monocytes and other immune cells, including macrophages and eosinophils, that aggregate in response to a chronic infection, such as tuberculosis, or other inflammatory process.

gran′u·lo′ma·tous (-mə-təs) adj.

granuloma

[gran′yoo͡lō′mə] pl. granulomas, granulomata
Etymology: L, granulum + Gk, oma, tumor
a chronic inflammatory lesion most commonly caused by histoplasmosis, a fungal infection. It is characterized by an accumulation of macrophages; epithelioid macrophages, with or without lymphocytes; and giant cells into a single, discrete enlarged mass. Granulomas most often occur in the lungs. They may resolve spontaneously, remain static, become gangrenous, spread, or act as a focus of infection. Treatment depends on the cause and probable course of the particular granuloma.

granuloma

(1) A nodular aggregate of epithelioid histiocytes (macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes), often accompanied by multinucleated epithelioid cells and scattered CD4 T cells in the centre (which function in antigen recognition), surrounded by a rim of collagen, rare CD8 T cells and proliferating fibroblasts.
 
DiffDx
Chronic infection, sarcoidosis and drug toxicity; if necrotic, TB is suspected; eosinophils favours allergy.
 
(2) A nonspecific term which may be used by non-pathologists for any rounded mass or bump.

granuloma

1. A nodular aggregate of epithelioid histiocytes or macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes, often accompanied by multinucleated epithelioid cells, and scattered CD4 T cells in the center, which function in antigen recognition, surrounded by a rim of collagen, rare CD8 T cells and proliferating fibroblasts DiffDx Chronic infection, sarcoidosis, and drug toxicity; if necrotic, TB is suspected; eosinophils favors allergy.
2. A nonspecific term which may be used by nonpathologists for any rounded mass or bump. See Central giant cell granuloma, Ceroid granuloma, Doughnut granuloma, Eosinophilic granuloma, Epithelioid granuloma, Fish tank granuloma, Giant cell granuloma, Giant cell reparative granuloma, Juvenile xanthogranuloma, Lethal midline granuloma, Lymphogranuloma venereum, Midline granuloma, Naked granuloma, Peripheral giant cell granuloma, Pregnancy granuloma, Pulse granuloma, Pyogenic granuloma, Swimming pool granuloma.

gran·u·lo·ma

, pl. granulomata (gran'yū-lō'mă, -tă)
A nodular inflammatory lesion, firm and persistent and usually either small or granular, which includes epithelial cells and may also contain other compactly grouped modified phagocytes such as giant cells and other macrophages; often bordered by lymphocytes.
See also: granulomatosis
[granulo- + G. -oma, tumor]

granuloma

(gran?yu-lo'ma ) (gran?yu-lo'ma-ta) plural.granulomasplural.granulomata [ granulo- + -oma]
An inflammatory response that results when macrophages are unable to destroy foreign substances that have entered or invaded body tissues. Large numbers of macrophages are drawn to the affected area over 7 to 10 days, surround the target, and enclose it. They in turn are surrounded by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, other immune cells, and fibroblasts. Granulomas are common in many conditions, including leprosy, tuberculosis, cat scratch disease, some fungal infections, and foreign body reactions, e.g., reactions to sutures. granulomatous (gran?yu-lo'ma-tus), adjective See: giant cell; tuberculosis; Wegener granulomatosis
Enlarge picture
GRANULOMA ANNULARE

granuloma annulare

A circular rash with a raised red border, usually found on the hands, knuckles, or arms of young patients. The cause is unknown. The rash often lasts 1 or 2 years and then may disappear spontaneously.
See: illustration

apical granuloma

Dental granuloma.

benign granuloma of the thyroid

A lymphadenoma of the thyroid.

coccidioidal granuloma

A chronic, generalized granuloma caused by the fungus Coccidioides immitis.
See: coccidioidomycosis

dental granuloma

A granuloma developing at the tip of a tooth root, usually the result of pulpitis. It consists of a proliferating mass of chronic inflammatory tissue and possibly epithelial nests or colonies of bacteria. It may be encapsulated by fibrous tissue of the periodontal ligament.
Synonym: apical granuloma; apical periodontitis

eosinophilic granuloma

A form of xanthomatosis accompanied by eosinophilia and the formation of cysts on bone.

granuloma fissuratum

A circumscribed, firm, fissured, fibrotic, benign tumor caused by chronic irritation. It may occur where hard objects such as dentures or the earpieces of glasses rub against the labioalveolar fold or the retroauricular fold. The tumor disappears when the irritating object is removed.

foreign body granuloma

Chronic inflammation around foreign bodies such as sutures, talc, splinters, or gravel.
Synonym: foreign body reaction

granuloma fungoides

Mycosis fungoides.

infectious granuloma

Any infectious disease in which granulomas are formed, e.g., tuberculosis or syphilis. Granulomas are also formed in mycoses and protozoan infections.

granuloma inguinale

A granulomatous ulcerative disease in which the initial lesion commonly appears in the genital area as a painless nodule.

Etiology

This type of granuloma is caused by a short, gram-negative bacillus, Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, (“Donovan body”).

Treatment

Erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or tetracyclines are used in treating this disease. Single-dose therapy with intramuscular ceftriaxone or oral ciprofloxacin may be effective.

granuloma iridis

A granuloma that develops on the iris.

lipoid granuloma

A granuloma that contains fatty tissue or cholesterol.

lipophagic granuloma

A granuloma in which the macrophages have phagocytosed the surrounding fat cells.

Majocchi granuloma

Majocchi disease.

malignant granuloma

Hodgkin disease.

pyogenic granuloma

See: lobular capillary hemangioma

granuloma pyogenicum

See: lobular capillary hemangioma

pyrogenic granuloma

See: lobular capillary hemangioma

swimming pool granuloma

A chronic skin infection caused by Mycobacterium marinum.

granuloma telangiectaticum

A very vascular granuloma at any site, but esp. in the nasal mucosa or pharynx.

trichophytic granuloma

Majocchi disease.

granuloma

1. A localized mass of GRANULATION TISSUE forming a nodule. Granulomas are often a response to the presence of foreign material within the tissues, and are commonly associated with persistent infection and inflammation.
2. An aggregate of EPITHELIOID macrophages often including multinucleated giant cells, plasma cells and eosinophils.

Granuloma

A collection of inflammatory cells forming a microscopic lesion, many of which are scattered throughout the lung tissue in patients who have had numerous acute episodes of HP.

granuloma (gran·y·lōˑ·m),

n persistent, inflamed lesion notable for its abundance of macrophages.
Enlarge picture
Granuloma.

granuloma

Growth appearing like a nodule, consisting essentially of granulation tissue and occurring as a result of localized inflammation. It can appear on the conjunctiva, the iris, the lacrimal gland, or the orbit.

gran·u·lo·ma

, pl. granulomata (gran'yū-lō'mă, -tǎ)
Term applied to nodular inflammatory lesions, usually small or granular, firm, persistent, and containing compactly grouped modified phagocytes.
[granulo- + G. -oma, tumor]

granuloma (gran´ūlō´mə),

n a localized mass of granulation tissue characterized by an accumulation of macrophages, epithelioid macrophages, with or without lymphocytes, and giant cells into a discrete mass.
Enlarge picture
Granuloma.
granuloma, central giant cell,
n a painless, benign, expansile lesion on bone, usually on the anterior mandible, less frequently crossing the midline of the mandible. Usually contain a number of multinucleated giant cells.
granuloma, chronic,
n (chronic apical periodontitis) a chronic inflammatory tissue surrounding the apical foramina as a result of irritation from within the root canal system.
granuloma, dental,
n a mass of granulation tissue surrounded by a fibrous capsule attached at the apex of a pulp-involved tooth. It produces a radiolucency that is fairly well demarcated.
granuloma, eosinophilic
n a granulomatous inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, usually monofocal in bone but sometimes affecting soft tissues. Sheets of histiocytes and masses of eosinophils characterize the lesion histologically. See also disease, Langerhans cell.
granuloma, giant cell reparative,
n an inflammatory lesion located near the gingival margin. It takes the shape of a mushroom, has a smooth, glossy surface, bleeds easily, and tends to reoccur after removal. It generally occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy. See also granuloma, pyogenic and granuloma, central giant cell.
granuloma inguinale
n a sexually transmitted disease characterized by ulcers of the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the groin and genitalia. It is caused by infection with
C. granulomatis, a small, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacillus.
granuloma, pyogenic,
n a tumorlike mass of granulation tissue produced in response to minor trauma in some individuals. It is not suppuration producing, as the name suggests, but is highly vascular and bleeds readily. They are histologically identical to pregnancy granulomas, but they may be found in either gender in any location, and may occur at any age. Some prefer the term
lobular capillary hemangioma to describe a pyogenic granuloma, as it more accurately describes the histologic findings.
granuloma, reticuloendothelial

granuloma

a tumor-like mass or nodule of granulation tissue, with actively growing fibroblasts and capillary buds, consisting of a collection of modified macrophages resembling epithelial cells, surrounded by a rim of mononuclear cells, chiefly lymphocytes, and sometimes a center of giant multinucleate cells; it is due to a chronic inflammatory process associated with infectious disease or invasion by a foreign body.

acropruritic granuloma
see acral lick dermatitis.
apical granuloma
modified granulation tissue containing elements of chronic inflammation located adjacent to the root apex of a tooth with infected necrotic pulp.
canine eosinophilic granuloma
see eosinophilic granuloma.
cholesterol granuloma
coccidioidal granuloma
the secondary, progressive, chronic (granulomatous) stage of coccidioidomycosis.
dental granuloma
one usually surrounded by a fibrous sac continuous with the periodontal ligament and attached to the root apex of a tooth.
enzootic nasal granuloma
see enzootic nasal granuloma.
equine dermal granuloma
feline lick granuloma
see feline eosinophilic granuloma complex.
granuloma fissuratum
a firm, whitish, fissured, fibrotic granuloma of the gum and buccal mucosa, occurring on an edentulous alveolar ridge and between the ridge and the cheek.
foreign body granuloma
a localized histiocytic reaction to a foreign body in the tissue.
idiopathic sterile g's
occur in dogs and cats; the lesions are painless and may become ulcerated and secondarily infected. An immune-mediated cause is suspected and the lesions often respond to treatment with corticosteroids or other immunomodulating drugs. Sometimes lesions regress spontaneously.
infectious granuloma
infection by one of the systemic mycotic fungal agents which result in a granulomatous lesion in the skin.
intestinal eosinophilic granuloma
see angiostrongyluscostaricensis.
linear granuloma
well-delineated, elevated plaques with an eroded surface that occur in a linear pattern, usually on the caudal aspect of the hindleg(s) of cats. Pruritus is variable. Similar lesions may also occur in the oral cavity and on the lips. See also feline eosinophilic granuloma complex.
lipoid granuloma
a granuloma containing lipoid cells; xanthoma.
lipophagic granuloma
a granuloma attended by the loss of subcutaneous fat.
mycotic granuloma
palisading granuloma
one characterized by the arrangement of histiocytes surrounding a focus of fibrin, foreign material, degenerating collagen.
paracoccidioidal granuloma
paracoccidioidomycosis.
peripheral giant cell reparative granuloma
a pedunculated or sessile lesion of the gingivae or alveolar ridge, apparently arising from the periodontium or mucoperiosteum, and usually due to trauma. It is uncommon in humans and animals. Called also reparative granuloma of the jaw.
pressure point granuloma
see pressure points.
pyogenic granuloma
a benign, solitary, nodule resembling granulation tissue, found anywhere on the body, commonly intraorally, usually at the site of trauma as a response of the tissues to a nonspecific infection.
reparative granuloma of the jaw
see peripheral giant cell reparative granuloma (above).
sperm granuloma
granuloma of the epididymis caused by leakage of spermatozoa from the efferent tubules or the epididymis into surrounding tissue. May be due to trauma, infection or to congenital defects in the duct system.
staphylococcal granuloma
a large mass containing small abscesses, found in the wall of the uterus of the sow. See also botryomycosis.
telangiectatic granuloma
a form characterized by numerous dilated blood vessels.
tuberculous granuloma
the lesion of tuberculosis and the prototype of granulomatous inflammation. It is composed of histiocytes and epithelioid cells surrounded by giant cells of the Langhans type, lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Bacteria are found in the cytoplasm of the epithelioid and giant cells.
ulcerative granuloma of swine
see ulcerative granuloma of swine.
venereal granuloma
see canine transmissible venereal tumor.
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