germination


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germination

 [jer″mĭ-na´shun]
the sprouting of a seed, spore, or plant embryo.

germination

/ger·mi·na·tion/ (jer″mĭ-na´shun) the sprouting of a seed, spore, or plant embryo.ger´minative

germination

[jur′minā′shən]
Etymology: L, germen, sprout
1 the initial growth and development of an organism from the time of fertilization to the formation of the embryo.
2 the sprouting of a spore or the seed of a plant. germinate, v.
Germinationclick for a larger image
Fig. 171 Germination . A typical seedling.

germination

the beginning of the growth of a seed, spore or other structure that is dormant. Seed DORMANCY can be broken by several factors, depending on the species:
  1. the removal of a germination inhibitor which can be leached out by water.
  2. a period of cold temperature (STRATIFICATION).
  3. exposure to the correct wavelength of light to stimulate PHYTOCHROMES in the seed, for example, lettuce seeds require red light for germination and are inhibited by far-red light.
  4. rupture of a thick testa by (i) microbial breakdown, (ii) abrasive action of soil (as in desert plants), (iii) heat from bush fires, (iv) the effect of digestive juices (as when eaten by birds), (v) the softening action of water. Once dormancy is broken a regular sequence of events takes place: water is imbibed which hydrates the tissues increasing enzymic action in the ALEURONE layer (when present), a process aided by the release of GIBBERELLIN from the embryo; food stores are mobilized by production of enzymes in the ENDOSPERM or within the COTYLEDONS; AUXINS and CYTOKININS are formed which promote cell division and enlargement, causing the embryo to grow and burst through the testa. See Fig. 171 .

There are two main types of germination, depending on whether the seed cotyledons are carried above the soil (EPIGEAL) or remain below ground (HYPOGEAL).

germination

the sprouting of a seed or spore or of a plant embryo.
References in periodicals archive ?
The inhibitor thus may delay germination of seeds until moisture and temperature are right, and then take a back seat to the germination promoter in smoke.
During the germination process, a number of indicators were evaluated such as germination, crop growth power, germination rate and some of parameters of early growth of the crop.
2], cold stratification and also the addition of gibberellic acid to MS media on seedling germination for H.
The germination of the seed of angiosperm and the spore of ferns begin when they are imbibed in water and the phytochromes are activated (Raghavan, 1989; Vazquez-Yanes and Orozco-Segovia, 1994).
Light effect on seed germination of four Mammillaria species from the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Valley, central Mexico.
The assembly of the two elements (shooting device with automatic image analysis and germination table) is the controller of germination.
All seeds lose viability during storage with a loss of vigour preceding the loss in germination [15].
However, to our knowledge, there have not been any detailed studies of the physiology of the germination process in E.
To keep the compost evenly moist while germination occurs, I find it useful to cover the tray with a plastic dome or slip the whole seed tray inside a white or clear plastic bag.
Using some of these questions as schemata, this How-To-Do-It allows students to explore the influence of an active butenolide, 3-methyl-2H-furo[2, 3-c]pyran-2-one (Figure 1), on seed germination.
The findings of Ogbo (2009) showed a reduction in seed germination and primary root length of peanut, cowpea, sorghum and corn affected by applied different concentrations of diesel oil into the soil.