genomic imprinting


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genomic imprinting

epigenetic process that leads to inactivation of paternal or maternal allele of certain genes susceptible to epigenetic regulation; accounts, among others, for the Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes.

genomic imprinting

differential expression of a gene or genes as a function of whether they were inherited from the male or the female parent (e.g., a deletion on chromosome 15 that causes Prader-Willi syndrome if inherited from the father causes instead Angelman's syndrome if inherited from the mother).

ge·nom·ic im·print·ing

(jē-nō'mik im'print-ing)
Epigenetic process that leads to inactivation of paternal or maternal allele of certain genes susceptible to epigenetic regulation; accounts, among others, for the Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes.

genomic imprinting

The concept, derived from an increasing body of compelling evidence, that the expression of some of the genes depends on whether they have been derived from the father or from the mother. It has been shown, for instance, that chromosomal deletion in chromosomes of parental origin may differ in their effect from the same deletion in the homologous chromosome of maternal origin. Many cancers are associated with loss of a particular chromosome derived from a particular parent—usually the mother. The DNA of some genes is modified during the formation of gametes so as to have altered expression and be activated or inactivated.

genomic imprinting

the process whereby certain genes are modified (principally by METHYLATION) during GAMETOGENESIS, resulting in differential expression of parental alleles depending on whether of maternal or paternal origin. The ‘imprinted’ regions of the DNA are generally less active in transcription. Offspring normally inherit one maternal and one paternal copy of their genes, and generally both copies are active. However, expression of certain genes occurs from only one of the two copies, as a result of imprinting of either the maternal or paternal ALLELE at a particular LOCUS. The phenomenon can occur in a variety of organisms. Only a few human genes are imprinted and they tend to be clustered in the genome. Imprinting may have no effect on health and development, but in some cases can cause medical disorders such as Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome. See also UNIPARENTAL DISOMY.
References in periodicals archive ?
PAR supplementation gave promising results also in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a genomic imprinting disorder whose most important feature is severe obesity leading to atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus, in which a close relationship with OS has been widely demonstrated [95].
Assessments of DNA integrity, spindle configuration, aneuploidy and genomic imprinting after cryopreservation
Yufeng Li, Hiroyuki Sasaki (2011) Genomic imprinting in mammals: its Life cycle, molecular mechanism and reprogramming.
Inheritance pattern of familial moyamoya disease: autosomal dominant mode and genomic imprinting.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing a hydroxymethylation and methylation comparative analysis at KvDMR1 (ICR2) in human placenta and in a genomic imprinting model.
Genomic imprinting provides an additional layer of regulation that does just that.
Francisco Ubeda, assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, along with fellow evolutionary biologist Andy Gardner from Oxford University, examined the impact that genomic imprinting has on the carrier's selfish or altruistic behavior.
DNA methylation is a post-replication process involved in the establishment of genomic imprinting, in the control of gene expression and of differentiation.
Researchers from around the world in genomics, microbiology, biostatistics, public health, and other fields discuss such topics as human telomere structure and biology, infectious disease, ENU mutagenesis, the role of enzymes in genetic diseases, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping, legal, ethical, and social issues in genetic testing, DNA sequencing methods, genomic imprinting, and genetic predisposition to breast cancer.
Abnormalities in genomic imprinting could lead to abnormal gene [activation] in the brain--perhaps during critical stages of development--that could increase the risk for autism," he says.
gene silencing, paramutation, genomic imprinting, position effect, etc.