genomic imprinting


Also found in: Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

genomic imprinting

epigenetic process that leads to inactivation of paternal or maternal allele of certain genes susceptible to epigenetic regulation; accounts, among others, for the Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes.

genomic imprinting

differential expression of a gene or genes as a function of whether they were inherited from the male or the female parent (e.g., a deletion on chromosome 15 that causes Prader-Willi syndrome if inherited from the father causes instead Angelman's syndrome if inherited from the mother).

ge·nom·ic im·print·ing

(jē-nō'mik im'print-ing)
Epigenetic process that leads to inactivation of paternal or maternal allele of certain genes susceptible to epigenetic regulation; accounts, among others, for the Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes.

genomic imprinting

The concept, derived from an increasing body of compelling evidence, that the expression of some of the genes depends on whether they have been derived from the father or from the mother. It has been shown, for instance, that chromosomal deletion in chromosomes of parental origin may differ in their effect from the same deletion in the homologous chromosome of maternal origin. Many cancers are associated with loss of a particular chromosome derived from a particular parent—usually the mother. The DNA of some genes is modified during the formation of gametes so as to have altered expression and be activated or inactivated.

genomic imprinting

the process whereby certain genes are modified (principally by METHYLATION) during GAMETOGENESIS, resulting in differential expression of parental alleles depending on whether of maternal or paternal origin. The ‘imprinted’ regions of the DNA are generally less active in transcription. Offspring normally inherit one maternal and one paternal copy of their genes, and generally both copies are active. However, expression of certain genes occurs from only one of the two copies, as a result of imprinting of either the maternal or paternal ALLELE at a particular LOCUS. The phenomenon can occur in a variety of organisms. Only a few human genes are imprinted and they tend to be clustered in the genome. Imprinting may have no effect on health and development, but in some cases can cause medical disorders such as Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome. See also UNIPARENTAL DISOMY.
References in periodicals archive ?
Researchers say that with a better understanding of genomic imprinting, a host of complex, inherited diseases may finally begin to make genetic sense.
Two novel genes in the center of the 11p15 imprinted domain escape genomic imprinting.
NASDAQ:ILMN) today announced that researchers at Baylor College of Medicine's Medical Genetics Laboratories will use Illumina's Infinium[R] High-Density (HD) DNA Analysis products to study genomic imprinting and its role in developmental diseases such as Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), Angelman syndrome (AS), and other disorders caused by uniparental disomy.
Methylation of promoter CpG islands is associated with histone deacetylation and transcriptional silencing (1) and is essential for normal embryonic development, genomic imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation.
Exploratory Grants for Genomic Imprinting and Environmental Disease Susceptibility
But the legacies of our parents linger on at the molecular level as well, in the form of genes that may act differently depending on which parent provided them--a phenomenon called genomic imprinting, which is related to why mammals persist in requiring parents of both sexes.
Prader-Willi syndrome is the result of a phenomenon known as genomic imprinting.
The epigenetic analysis of maternal plasma has obvious applications to disorders associated with genomic imprinting, such as Prader-Willi syndrome (25).
VOLUME 1 I MOLECULAR GENETICS Genetics, Molecular Basis of DNA Replication and Transcription Translation of RNA to Protein Alternatively Spliced Genes Repair and Mutagenesis of DNA Genomic Imprinting, Molecular Genetics of Heterochromatin and Euchromatin-Organization, Packaging II GENOMIC ORGANISATION AND EVOLUTION Gene Distribution in the Human Genome Anthology of Human Repetitive DNA Repetitive sequence and noncoding DNA evolution in Eukaryotes Horizontal Gene Transfer Molecular Systematics and Evolution Genetic Variation and Molecular Evolution III GENOMES OF MODEL ORGANISMS E.
Eight leading scientists will make presentations on meiotic versus mitotic chromatin structure and function, transcriptional repression prior to MET, genomic imprinting, chromatin structure and gene expression, the relationship between DNA replication and transcription, the role of the nuclear envelope, and somatic versus embryonic cell cycle.
The role of genomic imprinting in human developmental disorders: lessons from Prader-Willi syndrome.
genomic imprinting and X-inactivation) in reproduction, and other topics in reproductive genetics.