So far research results and current theoretical models should not be taken as final given that much scholarship is still needed until we fully understand the intricacies surrounding gene-environment interactions
implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia.
Two independent studies regarded gene-environment interactions
and suggested that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PM), who were exposed to pesticides, exhibited an increased risk for PD both compared with unexposed subjects and pesticide-exposed CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EMs) [53, 54].
Given the gene-environment interaction
identified, we performed genotype stratified analyses in the combined sample (discovery and replication) as well as additional explorative analyses assessing the robustness of the observed [PM.
The results of this study showed no significant association between gene-environment interaction
terms (rs1380--allele C x multigravida) as risk for developing VTE in women aged 18-80+.
The literature surrounding specific gene-environment interactions
in the area of alcohol use has developed largely independently of the latent gene-environment interaction
literature reviewed above.
Detecting, characterizing, and interpreting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions
as risk factors for alcoholism is an important first step in a systems genetics approach that combines genomimics (2) and proteomics (3) data with methods to understand how biological processes work together to determine human health.
Although Dickens and Flynn posited reciprocal causality in the absence of gene-environment interaction
, we put forth that, in fact, the effects of proximal processes differ as a function of initial conditions.
There is currently no clear consensus over the optimal statistical method for analyzing medium- to large-scale gene-environment interaction
studies (Thomas 2010) in order to minimize false positives due to testing many of these interactions.
Alcohol research is an area where one might imagine gene-environment interaction
effects to be particularly important in etiological models because, by definition, exposure to alcohol is a necessary condition for the eventual development of alcohol-related problems.
There appears to be a genetic component to a lot of these but there is a gene-environment interaction
Complementary twin designs, such as studies of the offspring of adult twins, also provide rich opportunities to study gene-environment interaction
and the potential moderating role of environmental factors, such as parenting practices and parental models (D'Onofrio et al.
In Odegaard's day--his classic paper was published in 1932-there was no concept of gene-environment interaction
in disease development.