gastrointestinal anthrax


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Related to gastrointestinal anthrax: Anthrax vaccine, inhalation anthrax

anthrax

 [an´thraks]
an infectious disease seen most often in cattle, horses, mules, sheep, and goats, due to ingestion of spores of Bacillus anthracis. It can be acquired by humans through contact with infected animals or their byproducts, such as carcasses or skins.

Anthrax in humans usually occurs as a malignant pustule or malignant edema of the skin. In rare instances it can affect the lungs if the spores of the bacillus are inhaled, or it can involve the intestinal tract when infected meat is eaten. The condition often is accompanied by hemorrhage, as the exotoxins from the bacillus attack the endothelium of small blood vessels. The condition is treated by the use of antibiotics such as penicillin and the tetracyclines. The malignant edema can be treated with intravenous hydrocortisone. The disorder is also known by a variety of names, including woolsorters' disease, ragpickers' disease, and charbon.
cutaneous anthrax anthrax due to lodgment of the causative organisms in wounds or abrasions of the skin, producing a black crusted pustule on a broad zone of edema.
gastrointestinal anthrax anthrax due to ingestion of poorly cooked meat contaminated with Bacillus anthracis, with deposition of spores in the submucosa of the intestinal tract, where they germinate, multiply, and produce toxin, resulting in massive edema, which may obstruct the bowel, hemorrhage, and necrosis.
inhalational anthrax a usually fatal form of anthrax due to inhalation of dust containing anthrax spores, which are transported to the regional lymph nodes where they germinate, multiply, and produce toxin, and characterized by hemorrhagic edematous mediastinitis, pleural effusions, dyspnea, cyanosis, stridor, and shock. It is usually an occupational disease, such as in persons who handle or sort contaminated wools and fleeces. Antimicrobial prophylaxis is used to prevent the condition. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has published interim guidelines for investigation and response to Bacillus anthracis infection. The evaluation of risk for exposure to aerosolized spores is of highest priority. Obtaining adequate samples, avoiding cross-contamination, and insuring proficient testing and evaluation of test results are all recommended.
meningeal anthrax a rare, usually fatal form of anthrax resembling typical hemorrhagic meningitis due to spread through the bloodstream of Bacillus anthracis from a primary focus of infection; manifestations include cerebrospinal fluid that is hemorrhagic and neurological signs and symptoms.
pulmonary anthrax inhalational anthrax.

gastrointestinal anthrax

See anthrax.
References in periodicals archive ?
Clinical signs included diarrhea and swollen abdomen (consistent with ascites), which are features of gastrointestinal anthrax.
was of an epidemic of gastrointestinal anthrax in Uganda in 1984, which affected 143 of 155 persons who ate meat from an infected zebu (Asian ox).
These two cases illustrate the benefit of surgery in the advanced form of gastrointestinal anthrax.
Based on our experience, the approach used in the management of cases of gastrointestinal anthrax should consist of: 1) initiation of intensive intravenous antibiotic therapy as soon as the diagnosis is made, 2) wide resection into seemingly healthy tissues with primary anastomosis in patients who did not improve with medical therapy, 3) continuous drainage of the ascites, as fluid will continue to accumulate for several days after surgery, 4) and aggressive replacement of protein and electrolyte losses (2,17).
We describe the clinical spectrum of gastrointestinal anthrax, a disease that was endemic in Lebanon in the 1960s.
Of the 53 persons with anthrax in the 1998 Kazakhstan outbreak, 2 were diagnosed with gastrointestinal anthrax after eating contaminated raw meat.
Gastrointestinal anthrax is greatly underreported in rural disease-endemic areas of the world.
The only symptom in 67 of these 74 patients with gastrointestinal anthrax was acute diarrhea (i.
Survival of a patient with gastrointestinal anthrax.

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