pertaining to, affecting, or originating in the stomach.
analysis of the stomach contents by microscopy and tests to determine the amount of hydrochloric acid
present. The tests performed are of value in diagnosing peptic ulcer
, cancer of the stomach, and pernicious anemia
. Gastric secretions are collected by continuous or intermittent aspiration via nasogastric tube. There is a wide overlap of the ranges of normal and abnormal values; hence intermediate values are not indicative of pathology. A total absence of acid (pH above 6.0) occurs in almost all cases of pernicious anemia and in some patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. Hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid is characteristic of zollinger-ellison syndrome
, which is marked by intractable, sometimes fulminating peptic ulcer, gastric hyperacidity, and gastrin-secreting pancreatic tumors.
gastric bypass surgical creation of a small gastric pouch that empties directly into the jejunum through a gastrojejunostomy, thereby causing food to bypass the duodenum; done for the treatment of gross obesity.
the secretion of glands in the walls of the stomach for use in digestion. Its essential ingredients are pepsin
, an enzyme that breaks down proteins in food, and hydrochloric acid
, which destroys bacteria and helps in the digestive process.
At the sight and smell of food, the stomach increases its output of gastric juice. When the food reaches the stomach, it is thoroughly mixed with the juice, the breakdown of the proteins is begun and the food then passes on to the duodenum for the next stage of digestion.
Normally the hydrochloric acid in gastric juice does not irritate or injure the delicate stomach tissues. However, in certain persons the stomach produces too much gastric juice, especially between meals when it is not needed, and the gastric secretions presumably erode the stomach lining, producing a peptic ulcer
, and also hinder its healing once an ulcer has formed.
a procedure of the treatment of morbid obesity consisting of the creation of a small pouch in the proximal stomach by two rows of staples, which are deliberately interrupted at one point to allow passage of food from the pouch to the rest of the stomach. This procedure is rarely done today because of its high failure rate. The two favored operations are the gastric bypass and the vertical banded gastroplasty
pertaining to, affecting, or originating in the stomach.
see gastric juice (below).
a large distended stomach lacking in tone as seen in a horse that is a windsucker and continuously swallows air. Predisposes to chronic indigestion.
gastric cicatricial contraction
in horses causes constriction of the stomach and subsequent dilatation of the dorsal sac.
see gastric dilatation colic
see gastric dilatation-volvulus (below).
gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV)
a syndrome of gastric dilatation leading to volvulus, seen most often in deep-chested, large breed dogs. The etiology is unclear, but aerophagia or overeating are important factors. Gastric hemorrhage and ulceration, hypotensive, hypovolemic shock, and severe electrolyte disturbances contribute to the high mortality. Surgical intervention is often required, cardiac dysrhythmias complicate recovery, and recurrences are common. Called also gastric dilatation-displacement, bloat.
in pigs commonly results in vomiting.
an accompaniment of edema in most organs in cases where edema is widespread; as a sole lesion is significant in the abomasum in cases of arsenic poisoning, ostertagiasis and in edema disease in pigs.
gastric emptying time
the time taken for the stomach to begin to empty of contents; demonstrated in contrast radiography. Delayed in gastric retention due to dysfunction of the pylorus, abnormalities of gastric motility, foreign bodies and systemic diseases.
see gastric juice (below).
folds in the gastric mucosa and part of the submucosa oriented in the direction of the long axis of the stomach, as they are in the abomasum; they may be few and simple or numerous and tortuous, as in the dog.
gastric foreign body
occurs most commonly in dogs, causing vomiting. Occasionally it may pass into the small intestine, causing partial or complete obstruction with more severe signs of dehydration, shock, and sometimes perforation with peritonitis. A variety of objects may be swallowed, e.g. needles, balls, children's toys, bones, fish hooks and socks, to name a few.
caused by gastric ulcer or foreign body. May cause sudden death due to exsanguination, as in pigs with esophagogastric ulcer, or anemia with melena.
in horses fed a diet of coarse indigestible roughage; a cause of subacute colic.
gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)
a tentative gut hormone secreted by the mucosa of the small intestine and playing a part in controlling gastric (inhibition) and intestinal (stimulation) secretion and insulin release (stimulation).
a technique for gastric resection in which areas of nonviable gastric wall are folded inward and the remainder sutured together so the necrotic tissue sloughs into the gastric lumen.
the secretion of glands in the walls of the stomach for use in digestion. Its essential ingredients are pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins in food, and hydrochloric acid, which destroys bacteria and is of assistance in the digestive process.
varies between the three regions of the stomach, being most active in the antrum, has a basic slow wave motility and a capacity to increase in response to the fullness of the stomach and to decrease with a rise in acidity of the duodenal contents.
secretes pepsin (as pepsinogen), hydrochloric acid.
includes adenocarcinoma, carcinoma, benign adenomatous polyps, leiomyomas, plasmacytoma, squamous cell carcinoma.
gastric outlet obstruction gastric peptidases
includes pepsin A, trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, carboxypeptidase A, carboxypeptidase B.
in horses occurs secondarily to lesions of the stomach wall, especially squamous cell carcinoma; causes a local peritonitis, often with extension to the spleen.
multiple small depressions in the gastric area of the stomach; a gastric gland opens into the bottom of each pit.
rotations of the stomach in the embryonic abdomen between its first appearance and its final disposition. In simple-stomached animals such as dogs two rotations are recognized, from the axial tube ventrally and to the left.
causes sudden cessation of abdominal pain caused by distention; acute endotoxic shock and peracute, diffuse peritonitis kill the animal within a few hours.
gastric squamous-cell carcinoma
the commonest gastric neoplasm in horses. Seen usually in the advanced stages of anorexia and weight loss. Characterized by a fungating mass in the pars esophagea often with secondary implants locally, sometimes widespread in other organs.
in sows, predisposed by large, sloppy meal and great excitement at feeding time leading to very fast eating. There is a short course with death due to shock and infarction of the stomach wall. See also gastric dilatation-volvulus (above).
an ulcer of the inner wall of the stomach. It occurs in all species at a low level but causes little disease. There is a high prevalence in horses racing and in training and is thought to result in impaired appetite. In horses, also caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Esophagogastric ulcer in pigs may reach epidemic proportions in some piggeries and cause serious mortalities due to blood loss. Called also gastric mucosal ulceration.
gastric venous infarction
gross lesions of bright red to dark red mucosa; occur in many septicemias, viremias and toxemias in horses and pigs.
peristaltic waves, the pacemakers for antral peristalsis.
Patient discussion about gastric
Q. What types of gastric bypass surgeries are there? I heard all sorts of options for gastric bypass are available. What is the most in use?
A. Bariatric surgeries or – gastric bypass surgeries for weight loss fall into three categories: Restrictive procedures make the stomach smaller to limit the amount of food intake, malabsorptive techniques reduce the amount of intestine that comes in contact with food so that the body absorbs fewer calories, and combination operations employ both restriction and malabsorption. The exact one to be done should be decided with the physician according to each patients abilities and pre-operative function level.
Q. how about gastric bypass surgery how does it work on a person and what they half to eat how much weight does the person lose
A. surgery should always be the last answer because it is the biggest change you will do to your body and to your life. theres always a chance that something might go wrong. you have to be on a tight diet meaning one bite of what you eat and that means no sugars, fats, or oils. even if you thought there was no sugar, oil or fat in what ever you eat you will have so much pain in your stomach and you wont stop vomiting which will make it even more painful. the bright side to it is you will lose about 50 pounds in one month which is great but if you dont work out like crazy trying to tone up your muscles you will sag all over and then theres more money thrown out of your pocket doing tummy tucks and tucks for everything else. itall depends on the person. good luck in what ever you do. do your research first
Q. Can gastric problems cause your heart to be enlarged? I am eighteen and my left side of my heart and lung is enlarged. I have done multiple tests to understand why they are enlarged my tests revealed no information, I do not even have asthma. My doctor suggested that I just need to hydrate alot. I have gastric problems everytime I eat even if it is little. Does my gastric problems such a "bubbly feeling" in my stomach and heart burn is affecting my heart size?
A. HI--i am not a DR put because i worked in a hosp as a therapist--the digestive system an the circulatory system are not connected. I suggest to you to change your diet(the things you eat-like pizza an other spicie foods-thy to eat 4hrs before you lay down-eat smaller portions-some times common sence about what you eat will do the trick---good luck-mrfoot56.More discussions about gastric