gastric outlet obstruction
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gastric outlet obstructionGastroenterology A manifestation of gastric dysmotility; the rate of gastric emptying is controlled by duodenal receptors for fat or acid Etiology Ulcers, benign or malignant tumors, inflammation–cholecystitis, acute pancreatitis or Crohn's disease, caustic strictures, pyloric stenosis Clinical Vomiting–often daily, intermittent epigastric pain; GOO may occur in neonates associated with antral hyperplasia, which has been attributed to therapy with PGE1, used to maintain patency of the ductus arteriosus in the face of congenital heart disease
gastric outlet obstruction
Blockage of the flow of food or liquids from the stomach to the duodenum. In children, the cause may be pyloric stenosis or atresia. In adults, ulcers and cancer are frequent causes.
See also: obstruction
pertaining to, affecting, or originating in the stomach.
see gastric juice (below).
a large distended stomach lacking in tone as seen in a horse that is a windsucker and continuously swallows air. Predisposes to chronic indigestion.
gastric cicatricial contraction
in horses causes constriction of the stomach and subsequent dilatation of the dorsal sac.
see gastric dilatation colic.
see gastric dilatation-volvulus (below).
gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV)
a syndrome of gastric dilatation leading to volvulus, seen most often in deep-chested, large breed dogs. The etiology is unclear, but aerophagia or overeating are important factors. Gastric hemorrhage and ulceration, hypotensive, hypovolemic shock, and severe electrolyte disturbances contribute to the high mortality. Surgical intervention is often required, cardiac dysrhythmias complicate recovery, and recurrences are common. Called also gastric dilatation-displacement, bloat.
in pigs commonly results in vomiting.
an accompaniment of edema in most organs in cases where edema is widespread; as a sole lesion is significant in the abomasum in cases of arsenic poisoning, ostertagiasis and in edema disease in pigs.
gastric emptying time
the time taken for the stomach to begin to empty of contents; demonstrated in contrast radiography. Delayed in gastric retention due to dysfunction of the pylorus, abnormalities of gastric motility, foreign bodies and systemic diseases.
see gastric juice (below).
folds in the gastric mucosa and part of the submucosa oriented in the direction of the long axis of the stomach, as they are in the abomasum; they may be few and simple or numerous and tortuous, as in the dog.
gastric foreign body
occurs most commonly in dogs, causing vomiting. Occasionally it may pass into the small intestine, causing partial or complete obstruction with more severe signs of dehydration, shock, and sometimes perforation with peritonitis. A variety of objects may be swallowed, e.g. needles, balls, children's toys, bones, fish hooks and socks, to name a few.
caused by gastric ulcer or foreign body. May cause sudden death due to exsanguination, as in pigs with esophagogastric ulcer, or anemia with melena.
see gastrointestinal hormones.
in horses fed a diet of coarse indigestible roughage; a cause of subacute colic.
gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)
a tentative gut hormone secreted by the mucosa of the small intestine and playing a part in controlling gastric (inhibition) and intestinal (stimulation) secretion and insulin release (stimulation).
a technique for gastric resection in which areas of nonviable gastric wall are folded inward and the remainder sutured together so the necrotic tissue sloughs into the gastric lumen.
the secretion of glands in the walls of the stomach for use in digestion. Its essential ingredients are pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins in food, and hydrochloric acid, which destroys bacteria and is of assistance in the digestive process.
varies between the three regions of the stomach, being most active in the antrum, has a basic slow wave motility and a capacity to increase in response to the fullness of the stomach and to decrease with a rise in acidity of the duodenal contents.
secretes pepsin (as pepsinogen), hydrochloric acid.
includes adenocarcinoma, carcinoma, benign adenomatous polyps, leiomyomas, plasmacytoma, squamous cell carcinoma.
includes pepsin A, trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, carboxypeptidase A, carboxypeptidase B.
in horses occurs secondarily to lesions of the stomach wall, especially squamous cell carcinoma; causes a local peritonitis, often with extension to the spleen.
multiple small depressions in the gastric area of the stomach; a gastric gland opens into the bottom of each pit.
rotations of the stomach in the embryonic abdomen between its first appearance and its final disposition. In simple-stomached animals such as dogs two rotations are recognized, from the axial tube ventrally and to the left.
causes sudden cessation of abdominal pain caused by distention; acute endotoxic shock and peracute, diffuse peritonitis kill the animal within a few hours.
gastric squamous-cell carcinoma
the commonest gastric neoplasm in horses. Seen usually in the advanced stages of anorexia and weight loss. Characterized by a fungating mass in the pars esophagea often with secondary implants locally, sometimes widespread in other organs.
in sows, predisposed by large, sloppy meal and great excitement at feeding time leading to very fast eating. There is a short course with death due to shock and infarction of the stomach wall. See also gastric dilatation-volvulus (above).
an ulcer of the inner wall of the stomach. It occurs in all species at a low level but causes little disease. There is a high prevalence in horses racing and in training and is thought to result in impaired appetite. In horses, also caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Esophagogastric ulcer in pigs may reach epidemic proportions in some piggeries and cause serious mortalities due to blood loss. Called also gastric mucosal ulceration.
gastric venous infarction
gross lesions of bright red to dark red mucosa; occur in many septicemias, viremias and toxemias in horses and pigs.
peristaltic waves, the pacemakers for antral peristalsis.