gastric motility


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gastric motility

the spontaneous peristaltic movements of the stomach that aid in digestion, moving food through the stomach and out through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum. Excess gastric motility causes pain that is usually treated with antispasmodic medication. Below normal motility is common in labor, after general anesthesia, and as a side effect of some sedative hypnotics.

gas·tric mo·til·i·ty

(gas'trik mō-til'i-tē)
Contractions of the smooth muscle of the stomach that help to liquify food into chyme and force it through the pyloric canal into the small intestine (i.e., gastric emptying).

gastric

pertaining to, affecting, or originating in the stomach.

gastric acid
see gastric juice (below).
gastric atony
a large distended stomach lacking in tone as seen in a horse that is a windsucker and continuously swallows air. Predisposes to chronic indigestion.
gastric cicatricial contraction
in horses causes constriction of the stomach and subsequent dilatation of the dorsal sac.
gastric dilatation
see gastric dilatation colic.
gastric dilatation-displacement
see gastric dilatation-volvulus (below).
gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV)
a syndrome of gastric dilatation leading to volvulus, seen most often in deep-chested, large breed dogs. The etiology is unclear, but aerophagia or overeating are important factors. Gastric hemorrhage and ulceration, hypotensive, hypovolemic shock, and severe electrolyte disturbances contribute to the high mortality. Surgical intervention is often required, cardiac dysrhythmias complicate recovery, and recurrences are common. Called also gastric dilatation-displacement, bloat.
gastric distention
in pigs commonly results in vomiting.
gastric edema
an accompaniment of edema in most organs in cases where edema is widespread; as a sole lesion is significant in the abomasum in cases of arsenic poisoning, ostertagiasis and in edema disease in pigs.
gastric emptying time
the time taken for the stomach to begin to empty of contents; demonstrated in contrast radiography. Delayed in gastric retention due to dysfunction of the pylorus, abnormalities of gastric motility, foreign bodies and systemic diseases.
gastric fluid
see gastric juice (below).
gastric folds
folds in the gastric mucosa and part of the submucosa oriented in the direction of the long axis of the stomach, as they are in the abomasum; they may be few and simple or numerous and tortuous, as in the dog.
gastric foreign body
occurs most commonly in dogs, causing vomiting. Occasionally it may pass into the small intestine, causing partial or complete obstruction with more severe signs of dehydration, shock, and sometimes perforation with peritonitis. A variety of objects may be swallowed, e.g. needles, balls, children's toys, bones, fish hooks and socks, to name a few.
gastric habronemiasis
gastric hemorrhage
caused by gastric ulcer or foreign body. May cause sudden death due to exsanguination, as in pigs with esophagogastric ulcer, or anemia with melena.
gastric hormones
see gastrointestinal hormones.
gastric impaction
in horses fed a diet of coarse indigestible roughage; a cause of subacute colic.
gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)
a tentative gut hormone secreted by the mucosa of the small intestine and playing a part in controlling gastric (inhibition) and intestinal (stimulation) secretion and insulin release (stimulation).
gastric intubation
gastric invagination
a technique for gastric resection in which areas of nonviable gastric wall are folded inward and the remainder sutured together so the necrotic tissue sloughs into the gastric lumen.
gastric juice
the secretion of glands in the walls of the stomach for use in digestion. Its essential ingredients are pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins in food, and hydrochloric acid, which destroys bacteria and is of assistance in the digestive process.
gastric motility
varies between the three regions of the stomach, being most active in the antrum, has a basic slow wave motility and a capacity to increase in response to the fullness of the stomach and to decrease with a rise in acidity of the duodenal contents.
gastric mucosa
secretes pepsin (as pepsinogen), hydrochloric acid.
gastric neoplasia
includes adenocarcinoma, carcinoma, benign adenomatous polyps, leiomyomas, plasmacytoma, squamous cell carcinoma.
gastric outlet obstruction
see pyloric obstruction, pyloric outflow failure.
gastric peptidases
includes pepsin A, trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, carboxypeptidase A, carboxypeptidase B.
gastric perforation
in horses occurs secondarily to lesions of the stomach wall, especially squamous cell carcinoma; causes a local peritonitis, often with extension to the spleen.
gastric pits
multiple small depressions in the gastric area of the stomach; a gastric gland opens into the bottom of each pit.
gastric rotation
rotations of the stomach in the embryonic abdomen between its first appearance and its final disposition. In simple-stomached animals such as dogs two rotations are recognized, from the axial tube ventrally and to the left.
gastric rupture
causes sudden cessation of abdominal pain caused by distention; acute endotoxic shock and peracute, diffuse peritonitis kill the animal within a few hours.
gastric squamous-cell carcinoma
the commonest gastric neoplasm in horses. Seen usually in the advanced stages of anorexia and weight loss. Characterized by a fungating mass in the pars esophagea often with secondary implants locally, sometimes widespread in other organs.
gastric torsion
in sows, predisposed by large, sloppy meal and great excitement at feeding time leading to very fast eating. There is a short course with death due to shock and infarction of the stomach wall. See also gastric dilatation-volvulus (above).
gastric ulcer
an ulcer of the inner wall of the stomach. It occurs in all species at a low level but causes little disease. There is a high prevalence in horses racing and in training and is thought to result in impaired appetite. In horses, also caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Esophagogastric ulcer in pigs may reach epidemic proportions in some piggeries and cause serious mortalities due to blood loss. Called also gastric mucosal ulceration.
gastric venous infarction
gross lesions of bright red to dark red mucosa; occur in many septicemias, viremias and toxemias in horses and pigs.
gastric waves
peristaltic waves, the pacemakers for antral peristalsis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Active ghrelin, which has an important role in mediating gastric motility, was observed to be reduced in animals subjected to NMS but raised in those subjected to RS or NMS/RS.
The contribution of the sympathetic nervous system to gastric motility in rats following restraint stress was reviewed by Yano et al (Yano et al.
Gastroparesis is a chronic gastric motility disorder characterized by delayed gastric emptying.
But the usefulness of paracetamol absorption test for gastric motility study is controversial (9).
Key Words: gastroparesis, delayed gastric emptying, gastric motility
We speculate that this acute increase of ghrelin during smoking is related to adverse effects on gastric mucosa, gastric motility, mucosal blood flow, and concentrations of free radicals (8).
Domperidone (Motilium) is a gastric motility agent widely used in Canada, New Zealand, Germany, Australia, Mexico, and South Africa to treat gastric reflux and nausea.
Although metoclopramide usually is thought of as a gastric motility agent, it is classified as a neuroleptic but is seldom used in psychiatric practice.
Q: Could the vomiting be a sign of gastrointestinal disturbance or a lack of gastric motility, which may continue until the time of surgery?
prevent aspiration - Monitor gastric motility of drugs;
A newer version will have additional channels for sensing heart rate, acidity, electrical conductivity and pressure - the latter a measure of gastric motility.
This report provides information on the therapeutic development for Gastric Motility Disorder, complete with latest updates, and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects.