gastric digestion


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Related to gastric digestion: digestion

digestion

 [dĭ-jes´chun]
1. the subjection of a substance to prolonged heat and moisture, so as to soften and disintegrate it.
2. the act or process of converting food into chemical substances that can be absorbed into the blood and utilized by the body tissue.
 Digestion. 1. Carbohydrates: principally starches, lactose, and sucrose. Starches are acted on by the enzyme ptyalin (alpha-amylase) secreted in saliva, by hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the stomach, and by pancreatic amylase and intestinal amylase in the small intestine, which split the starches into maltose and isomaltose. These, in turn, are acted on by maltase and isomaltase and split into two molecules of glucose. Lactose is split by the enzyme lactase into a molecule of galactose and a molecule of glucose. The monosaccharides glucose, galactose, and fructose are absorbed from the small intestine into the blood. 2. Fats: emulsified by bile salts and agitation. The emulsified fats are acted upon by pancreatic and enteric lipase to form fatty acids, glycerol, and monoglycerides, which are absorbed through the intestinal walls. Small quantities of diglycerides and triglycerides are also absorbed. 3. Proteins: acted on chiefly in the stomach by pepsin, which splits proteins into proteoses, peptones, and polypeptides. In the small intestine they are acted on by the pancreatic enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase to form polypeptides and amino acids. In the small intestine the peptidases complete the breakdown of the peptides into dipeptides and amino acids. Almost all proteins are eventually digested and absorbed either as amino acids or as dipeptides or tripeptides.
See illustration. Digestion is accomplished by physically breaking down, churning, diluting, and dissolving the food substances, and also by splitting them chemically into simpler compounds. Carbohydrates are eventually broken down to monosaccharides (simple sugars); proteins are broken down into amino acids; and fats are absorbed as fatty acids and glycerol (glycerin). The digestive process takes place in the alimentary canal or digestive system. The salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are located outside the alimentary canal, but they are considered accessory organs of digestion because their secretions provide essential enzymes.
gastric digestion digestion by the action of gastric juice.
digestion/hydration in the omaha system, a client problem defined as converting food into substances suitable for absorption and assimilation into the body and supplying water to maintain adequate body fluids.
intestinal digestion digestion by the action of intestinal juices.
pancreatic digestion digestion by the action of pancreatic juice.
peptic digestion gastric digestion.
primary digestion digestion occurring in the gastrointestinal tract.
salivary digestion the change of starch into maltose by the saliva.

gas·tric di·ges·tion

that part of digestion, chiefly of the proteins, carried on in the stomach by the enzymes of the gastric juice.
Synonym(s): peptic digestion

gastric digestion

Etymology: Gk, gaster, stomach; L, digere, to separate
digestion by gastric juice in the stomach.

gas·tric di·ges·tion

(gas'trik di-jes'chŭn)
That part of digestion, chiefly of the proteins, carried on in the stomach by the enzymes of the gastric juice.
Synonym(s): peptic digestion.

gas·tric di·ges·tion

(gas'trik di-jes'chŭn)
Stage of digestion, chiefly of proteins, carried on in the stomach by enzymes of gastric juice.

digestion

1. the act or process of converting food into chemical substances that can be absorbed into the blood and utilized by the body tissues.
2. the subjection of a substance to prolonged heat and moisture, so as to disintegrate and soften it.
Digestion is accomplished by physically breaking down, churning, diluting and dissolving the food substances, and also by splitting them chemically into simpler compounds. Carbohydrates are eventually broken down to monosaccharides (simple sugars); proteins are broken down into amino acids; and fats are absorbed as fatty acids, monoglycerides and glycerol (glycerin).
The digestive process takes place in the alimentary canal or digestive system. The salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and pancreas are located outside the alimentary canal, but they are considered accessory organs of digestion because their secretions provide essential enzymes and other substances.

avian digestion
differs markedly from mammals in the mouth; there are no teeth, dental functions being performed by the beak and the muscular gizzard; the esophagus, in other than owls and insectivorous species, has one or two crops, dilations where ingesta are held temporarily.
enzymatic digestion
most digestive processes in monogastric animals are enzymatic brought about by enzymes secreted into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract and enzymes located at the brush borders of the intestinal epithelium.
digestion error
any disruption of the normal digestive process; caused by abnormal ingesta, either chemically or physically, or by an error in the physiological and biochemical processes which constitute digestion.
gastric digestion
digestion by the action of gastric juice.
impaired digestion
intestinal digestion
digestion by the action of intestinal juices, bile and pancreatic juice.
luminal phase digestion
the stage of the digestion of fats that goes on in the lumen of the intestine; as distinct from the mucosal phase that occurs in the epithelial cells.
pancreatic digestion
digestion by the action of pancreatic juice.
peptic digestion
gastric digestion by pepsin.
primary digestion
digestion occurring in the gastrointestinal tract.
ruminant digestion
characterized by the fermentative functions that are carried on in the forestomachs. Cellulose is readily digested with the output of short-chain fatty acids being the chief energy source for the animal. Nonprotein nitrogen is utilized by the ruminal bacteria for the manufacture of protein which is later available for the satisfaction of the animal's protein needs.
salivary digestion
the change of starch into maltose by the saliva; most marked in humans.
digestion tests
see starch digestion test, lactose digestion test, gelatin digestion test.
References in periodicals archive ?
s]-caseins in buffalo milk after 40 min of gastric digestion.
However, it has been reported that gastric digestion of milk fat is important for further duodenal lipolysis (Jensen 2002; Ye et al.
Effect of some phenolic compounds and beverages on pepsin activity during simulated gastric digestion.
Gastric digestion was regarded as a chemical fermentation, with saliva playing an important initial role.
In each, the first step simulates gastric digestion.