gas exchange


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

exchange

 [eks-chānj´]
1. the substitution of one thing for another.
2. to substitute one thing for another.
gas exchange the passage of oxygen and carbon dioxide in opposite directions across the alveolocapillary membrane.
health care information exchange in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as providing patient care information to health professionals in other agencies.
impaired gas exchange a nursing diagnosis approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as excess or deficit in oxygenation and/or carbon dioxide elimination at the alveolocapillary membrane (see gas exchange). Etiological and contributing factors include an altered oxygen supply, changes in the alveolar-capillary membrane, altered blood flow, and altered oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Defining characteristics include changes in mental status such as confusion, somnolence, restlessness, and irritability; ineffective coughing and inability to move secretions from the air passages; hypercapnia; and hypoxia. For specific medical treatments and nursing interventions, see airway clearance, ineffective; breathing patterns, ineffective; chronic airflow limitation; and anemia.
plasma exchange see plasma exchange.

gas exchange

or

gas carriage

the transfer of gases between an organism and the environment. In RESPIRATION, oxygen is taken in and carbon dioxide given out. Photosynthesis in plants complicates this system in that during the process carbon dioxide is required by the plant and oxygen given off (see COMPENSATION PERIOD). In plants and small animals such as PROTOZOANS and PLATYHELMINTHS, gas exchange occurs by DIFFUSION. In higher animals, special respiratory surfaces have been developed, for example, internal and external gills, lungs and trachea.

Gas exchange

The process by which oxygen is extracted from inhaled air into the bloodstream, and, at the same time, carbon dioxide is eliminated from the blood and exhaled.
Mentioned in: Respiratory Failure

gas exchange

in the animal kingdom, the uptake of oxygen and excretion of carbon dioxide, exchanged between the body and the environment aka respiratory gas exchange . In human physiology pulmonary gas exchange refers to the diffusion of oxygen from the gas phase in the lung alveoli, through the thin alveolar-capillary membrane, into solution in the pulmonary capillary blood, and of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction, both driven by partial pressure gradients. See also blood gases.

gas

any elastic aeriform fluid in which the molecules are widely separated from each other and so have free paths.

alveolar gas
the gas in the alveoli of the lungs, where gaseous exchange with the capillary blood takes place. See also oxygen, carbon dioxide.
blood gas
gas bubble disease
a disease of fish in tanks in which the water is supersaturated with oxygen or nitrogen. Gas embolism develops in the gills. Air bubbles can be seen in the gills, eyes and under the skin and the fish show bizarre nervous behavior.
gas cap
a cap of gas above fluid or solid contents in a hollow viscus, e.g. in a static rumen. Seen radiologically in distended intestinal loops in paralytical ileus.
gas edema disease
gas exchange
gases move by simple diffusion in response to pressure differences; net diffusion occurs from areas of high pressure to areas of lower pressure irrespective of whether the gas is present as a gas or in solution or gases moving from gas to solution or vice versa. The rate of exchange of gases in body tissues, e.g. between alveolar space and erythrocyte, is influenced by many other factors, especially the diffusion distance and the solubility of the gas.
gas inhalation
irritant gases, e.g. manure gas, cause pulmonary edema.
laughing gas
nitrous oxide.
manure gas poisoning
see manure pit gas poisoning.
tear gas
a gas that produces severe lacrimation by irritating the conjunctivae. See lacrimator.
gas transport
relates to the efficiency of transport of gas, e.g. oxygen, by the patient as a whole. The efficiency of gas transport varies widely between normal individuals and between species, e.g. athletic breeds of horses and dogs have much faster gas transport systems than human athletes; the efficiency of gas transport in the individual depends largely on the rapidity of increase in minute ventilation, plus a similar rate of increase in cardiac output.
gas tube
References in periodicals archive ?
It has been indicated that in order for benefitting gas exchange, the gas-blood diffusion distances in the respiratory organs such as lungs of vertebrate animals, are similar and they are all shorter than 3.
2] carbon supply poplars showed increased lignin content, what evidences that Capsicum plants require higher gas exchange rates for optimum synthesis of lignin.
Gas exchange parameters of soybean leaves were determined using a portable open flow gas exchange system LI-6400 (LI-COR, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA) at 10:00 AM.
2014) studying hybrid trifoliated and other citrus hybrids under salt stress, highlighting the effect of salinity on gas exchange of some genotypes, which the authors consider to be sensitive to salinity.
Diurnal variations in gas exchange chlorophyll fluorescence quenching and light allocation in soybean leaves: The cause for midday depression in CO2 assimilation.
Reliability estimates of PO@VT by gas exchange (104 [+ or -] 40 vs 107 [+ or -] 36 W, ICC = 0.
If a patient can be mobilized safely into an upright and/or chair position, they now have other mobility options to facilitate secretion removal and gas exchange.
In addition to the gas exchange upgrades outlined in technology package 1, fit a new combustion system, fuel injection equipment with sensors and calibration and revised lubrication and cooling systems.
Although significant reductions in leaf gas exchange were observed on only 4 measurement dates, it is important to point out that gas exchange in this study was measured on a per-leaf and not a per-plant basis.
The ideal PFC for liquid ventilation should have: (i) a high solubility for oxygen and carbon dioxide to maintain gas exchange, (ii) a greater density than body fluids so that it descends to the dependent regions of the lungs and re-opens the areas of atelectasis, (iii) a low surface tension to work like surfactant and improve lung compliance, (5) (iv) property of being inert and not metabolized and eliminated intact by evaporation during exhalation or transpiration through the skin, (11) (v) sufficient volatility to allow elimination in an acceptable time.
CEGH and the Vienna Stock Exchange have been co-operating since December 2009 when they started the joint CEGH Gas Exchange of Wiener Boerse.
Some traditionalists assert that real corks are the only way to get the healthy gas exchange needed for a flavorful wine, while screw caps are suffocating.