The latest research has uncovered a second, gamma-butyrobetaine
, produced by the microbes at a rate 1,000 times higher than TMAO formation.
Effect of sports activity on carnitine metabolism: measurement of free carnitine, gamma-butyrobetaine
and acylcarnitines by tandem mass spectrometry.
Such processes are characterized in that bioreactor microorganism or its mutant is cultivated with crotonobetaine and / or gamma-butyrobetaine
in the presence of a growth substrate, after which the culture liquid is guided out-side the bioreactor in a cycle in which a significant biomass is removed to waste treatment.