Differences in the amount of use tall fescue and NWSG receive by gallinaceous
broods is more likely determined by vegetative parameters rather than invertebrate abundance.
Squamous cell carcinoma has been reported in a variety of avian species, including psittacine birds,4-10 gallinaceous
birds, (11,12) raptors, (13,14) a hornbill (Buceros biconus).
Populations of many gallinaceous
birds, including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata), show extreme variation in densities regionally and from year-to-year (Speake & Haugen 1960; Schemnitz 1961; 1964; Campbell 1968; Campbell et al.
Passerine birds and gallinaceous
birds appear more susceptible than other species, fitting with the species natural history of foraging on the intermediate host.
A(H5N1) viruses withthe A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996-like hemagglutinin gene are classified as HPAI viruses because infections in chickens or other gallinaceous
species cause high-level replication throughout many tissues, extensive shedding/environmental contamination, and generally high death rates (5,8,11).
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A virus infection of gallinaceous
The virus infects several species of gallinaceous
birds but has not been shown to cause disease in other avian classes.
Most reports are from gallinaceous
species that have been managed in a production setting.
Some amino acid features within the HA and NA of these 2 viruses were the same as those in the A/Shanghai/2/2013(H7N9) strain: L226 and G228 in HA, believed to control host receptor specificity; the cleavage site in HA, relevant for virulence; a deletion in NA stalk (position 69-73), associated with the adaption to gallinaceous
hosts; and R294 in NA, related to virus sensitivity to oseltamivir (5).
gallinae mites as affecting gallinaceous
birds and K.
birds, lesions such as conjunctivitis, sinusitis, tracheitis, airsacculitis, and abscesses of the head and wattles are associated with Av gallinarum infection.
These influenza viruses are a potential threat to the poultry population in South Korea, including gallinaceous
birds during movement of domestic ducks through the distribution network of live bird markets.