gall

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bile

 [bīl]
a clear yellow or orange fluid produced by the liver. It is concentrated and stored in the gallbladder, and is poured into the small intestine via the bile ducts when needed for digestion. Bile helps in alkalinizing the intestinal contents and plays a role in the emulsification, absorption, and digestion of fat; its chief constituents are conjugated bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipid, bilirubin, and electrolytes. The bile salts emulsify fats by breaking up large fat globules into smaller ones so that they can be acted on by the fat-splitting enzymes of the intestine and pancreas. A healthy liver produces bile according to the body's needs and does not require stimulation by drugs. Infection or disease of the liver, inflammation of the gallbladder, or the presence of gallstones can interfere with the flow of bile.
bile acids steroid acids derived from cholesterol; classified as primary, those synthesized in the liver, e.g., cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids, or secondary, those produced from primary bile acids by intestinal bacteria and returned to the liver by enterohepatic circulation, e.g., deoxycholic and lithocholic acids.
bile ducts the canals or passageways that conduct bile. There are three bile ducts: the hepatic duct drains bile from the liver; the cystic duct is an extension of the gallbladder and conveys bile from the gallbladder. These two ducts may be thought of as branches that drain into the “trunk,” or common bile duct. The common bile duct passes through the wall of the small intestine at the duodenum and joins with the pancreatic duct to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla, or ampulla of Vater. At the opening into the small intestine there is a sphincter that automatically controls the flow of bile into the intestine.

The bile ducts may become obstructed by gallstones, benign or malignant tumors, or a severe local infection. Various disorders of the gallbladder or bile ducts are often diagnosed by ultrasonography, radionuclide imaging, and x-ray examination of the gallbladder and bile ducts using a special contrast medium so that these hollow structures can be clearly outlined on the x-ray film.

gall

(gawl),
1. Synonym(s): bile
2. An excoriation or erosion.
3. Synonym(s): nutgall
[A.S. gealla]

gall

(gawl) bile.

gall 1

(gôl)
n.
See bile.

gall 2

(gôl)
n.
A skin sore caused by friction and abrasion: a saddle gall.
v. galled, galling, galls
v.tr.
To wear away or make sore by abrasion; chafe:
v.intr.
To become worn or sore by abrasion.

gall

1 See bile.
2 a lump or ball that forms most often on the stems, leaves, or roots of plants at the site of injuries caused by insects, fungi, bacteria, or other organisms. An example is the oak gall, which contains tannin.

gall

Herbal medicine
Nutgall, a folk remedy and astringent.

Medspeak
An obsolete term for either:
(1) Bile; or 
(2) An erosion, excoriation or ulcer.
 
Vox populi
Cheek, nerve, impertinence, cheekiness, audacity, temerity, presumption, shamelessness, disrespect, bad manners.

gall

The old term for BILE, but still preserved in the word GALL BLADDER and GALLSTONES.

gall

an abnormal growth of plant tissue caused by insects, mites, eel worms or fungi.

gall,

n 1. a bulbous plant structure that is formed in response to an injury or invasion by microorganisms. Often, plant galls contain medicinal phytochemicals.
2. See also bile.

gall

(gawl)
1. Synonym(s): bile.
2. An excoriation or erosion.
[A.S. gealla]

gall

1. the bile.
2. a sore caused by chafing; said commonly of horses.
3. an excrescence on a plant, e.g. on the seedheads of Lolium rigidum, caused by plant nematodes and causing poisoning.
4. an extract of galls. Used in medicine as a bitter.

girth gall
see girth gall.
saddle gall
see saddle sore.
gall sickness
References in periodicals archive ?
Our findings of the high correlation between galls per leaf and galled leaves per shoot indicate that potential for plant injury prevented by the resistance is great.
When watered and fertilized, galled plants at least equalled the mass of ungalled plants.
For example, galled plants produced extensive axillary regrowth that replaced leaves and inflorescences normally arising from apical meristems, but inhibited by galls.
Axillary meristems were present but failed to grow in galled plants, so their leaf area and reproductive output were reduced.
Resources, competition, and the galls themselves appear to have constrained a tolerance-enhancing axillary regrowth response in galled field rosinweed.
This shows that for galling species that depend solely on the galled leaflet, the supply of assimilates may become limiting.
On the other hand, the galled leaflet normally appears to be the only source of assimilates for crescent galls.
Spherical galls caused early senescence (but not abscission) of the galled leaflet (Table 4).
We have some preliminary published evidence from trees at other sites documenting the sink strength of these Fordinae galls and the effect of spherical galls on senescence of galled leaflets and mortality of cohabiting species (Burstein et al.
Crescent galls were relatively weak mobilizing sinks, and normally imported assimilates only from the galled leaflet itself.
Positioned on the leaflet midvein, a spherical gall thus prevents a cohabiting crescent gall from using nutrient sources other than the galled leaflet, by blocking the flow of assimilates, water, and minerals to the rest of the leaflet blade.