gait

(redirected from gaits)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

gait

 [gāt]
the manner or style of walking.
gait analysis evaluation of the manner or style of walking, usually done by observing the individual walking naturally in a straight line. The normal forward step consists of two phases: the stance phase, during which one leg and foot are bearing most or all of the body weight, and the swing phase, during which the foot is not touching the walking surface and the body weight is borne by the other leg and foot. In a complete two-step cycle both feet are in contact with the floor at the same time for about 25 per cent of the time. This part of the cycle is called the double-support phase.

An analysis of each component of the three phases of ambulation is an essential part of the diagnosis of various neurologic disorders and the assessment of patient progress during rehabilitation and recovery from the effects of a neurologic disease, a musculoskeletal injury or disease process, or amputation of a lower limb.
antalgic gait a limp adopted so as to avoid pain on weight-bearing structures, characterized by a very short stance phase.
ataxic gait an unsteady, uncoordinated walk, with a wide base and the feet thrown out, coming down first on the heel and then on the toes with a double tap.
double-step gait a gait in which there is a noticeable difference in the length or timing of alternate steps.
drag-to gait a gait in which the feet are dragged (rather than lifted) toward the crutches.
equine gait a walk accomplished mainly by flexing the hip joint; seen in crossed leg palsy.
festinating gait one in which the patient involuntarily moves with short, accelerating steps, often on tiptoe, with the trunk flexed forward and the legs flexed stiffly at the hips and knees. It is seen in parkinson's disease and other neurologic conditions that affect the basal ganglia. Called also festination.
four-point gait a gait in forward motion using crutches: first one crutch is advanced, then the opposite leg, then the second crutch, then the second leg, and so on.
Four-point gait. From Elkin et al., 2000.
gluteal gait the gait characteristic of paralysis of the gluteus medius muscle, marked by a listing of the trunk toward the affected side at each step.
helicopod gait a gait in which the feet describe half circles, as in some conversion disorders.
hemiplegic gait a gait involving flexion of the hip because of footdrop and circumduction of the leg.
intermittent double-step gait a hemiplegic gait in which there is a pause after the short step of the normal foot, or in some cases after the step of the affected foot.
Oppenheim's gait a gait marked by irregular oscillation of the head, limbs, and body; seen in some cases of multiple sclerosis.
scissors gait a crossing of the legs while advancing with slow, small steps.
spastic gait a walk in which the legs are held together and move in a stiff manner, the toes seeming to drag and catch.
steppage gait the gait in footdrop in which the advancing leg is lifted high in order that the toes may clear the ground. It is due to paralysis of the anterior tibial and fibular muscles, and is seen in lesions of the lower motor neuron, such as multiple neuritis, lesions of the anterior motor horn cells, and lesions of the cauda equina.
stuttering gait a walking disorder characterized by hesitancy that resembles stuttering; seen in some hysterical or schizophrenic patients as well as in patients with neurologic damage.
swing-through gait that in which the crutches are advanced and then the legs are swung past them.
swing-to gait that in which the crutches are advanced and the legs are swung to the same point.
tabetic gait an ataxic gait in which the feet slap the ground; in daylight the patient can avoid some unsteadiness by watching his feet.
three-point gait that in which both crutches and the affected leg are advanced together and then the normal leg is moved forward. See illustration at crutches.
two-point gait that in which the right foot and left crutch or cane are advanced together, and then the left foot and right crutch. See illustration at crutches.
waddling gait exaggerated alternation of lateral trunk movements with an exaggerated elevation of the hip, suggesting the gait of a duck; characteristic of muscular dystrophy.

gait

(gāt),
Manner of walking.

gait

(gāt) the manner or style of walking.
antalgic gait  a limp adopted so as to avoid pain on weight-bearing structures, characterized by a very short stance phase.
ataxic gait  an unsteady, uncoordinated walk, employing a wide base and the feet thrown out.
festinating gait  a gait in which the patient involuntarily moves with short, accelerating steps, often on tiptoe, as in parkinsonism.
helicopod gait  a gait in which the feet describe half circles, as in some conversion disorders.
hip extensor gait  a gait in which the heel strike is followed by throwing forward of the hip and throwing backward of the trunk and pelvis.
myopathic gait  exaggerated alternation of lateral trunk movements with an exaggerated elevation of the hip.
paraplegic spastic gait  spastic g.
quadriceps gait  a gait in which at each step on the affected leg the knee hyperextends and the trunk lurches forward.
spastic gait  a gait in which the legs are held together and move in a stiff manner, the toes seeming to drag and catch.
steppage gait  the gait in footdrop in which the advancing leg is lifted high so that the toes can clear the ground.
stuttering gait  one characterized by hesitancy that resembles stuttering.
tabetic gait  an ataxic gait that accompanies tabes dorsalis.
waddling gait  myopathic g.

gait

Etymology: ONorse, geta, a way
the manner or style of walking, including rhythm, cadence, and speed.
Manner and style of walking

gait

Manner and style of walking. See Ataxic gait, Athetotic gait, Broad-based gait, Cerebellar gait, Charlie Chaplin gait, Choreoathetotic gait, Dromedory gait, Dropfoot gait, Drunken–staggering gait, Dystonic gait, Festinating gait, Gait of sensory ataxia, Hemiplegic gait, Hysterical gait, Myopathic gait, Penguin gait Senile gait, Shuffling gait, Spastic–paraplegic gait; Steppage–equine gait, Toppling gait, Trendelenburg Waddling–myopathic gait.

gait

(gāt)
Manner of walking, characterized by rhythm, cadence, step length, stride length, and velocity.

gait

The particular way in which a person walks. From the Middle English gate, a way or passage.

Gait

Referring to walking motions.
Mentioned in: Neurologic Exam

gait

style of locomotion, usually referring to walking or running. See also step length, stride, support, swing.

gait

manner of walking (Table 1)
Table 1: Gait patterns
Gait patternCharacteristics
Apropulsive gaitTypical of someone who pronates excessively during the stance phase of gait
Characteristically inefficient gait pattern; subject does not achieve supination at toe off
Antalgic gaitTypical of the elderly
Characteristically shows loss of gait fluidity and ease of movement, due to foot pain, generalized pain and disability
Ataxic gaitTypical of someone with cerebellar pathology
Characteristically an uncoordinated gait pattern
Shows dyssynergy (loss of smoothly coordinated voluntary movements), dysrhythmia (abnormal timing and coupling of movements), dysmetria (the inability to gauge distance, speed, strength and velocity of movements)
This results in a wide-based gait with a slow, jerky and irregular cadence, variability of stride length and foot placement from step to step, numerous postural adjustments and easy loss of balance
Bouncing gaitTypical of someone with ankle equinus
Characteristically shows early heel off (lift) due to soft-tissue contracture of Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius complex, shortened stride length, external hip rotation, extended knee extension throughout the stance phase, abductory twist of heel and forefoot, excessive pronation, elongated propulsive phase, forefoot subluxation and medial column collapse
Childhood gaitTypical of a child aged 2-6 years
Characteristically shows developmental knock knee, abdomen less prominent than the toddler gait; foot type approaches the adult form with a more evident medial longitudinal arch
Festinant or shuffling gaitTypical of someone with Parkinson's disease
Characteristically shows difficulty in initiating gait; rapid, short, shuffling steps once mobile, with loss of arm swing, stooped stance, propulsion and retropulsion
Hallux limitus gaitTypical of someone with functional or actual reduced dorsiflexion at the first metatarsophalangeal joint
Characteristically shows reduced heel lift, obligatory pronation about the longitudinal axis of the metatarsal joint, leading to abductory twist and increased abducted angle of gait, internal tibial torsion, internal rotation and increased transverse plane motion at knee, internal hip rotation, forward pelvic tilt and increased lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis and a forward tilt of the cervical spine
High-steppage gaitTypical of someone with foot drop and/or distal sensory neuropathy
Characteristically shows increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase of gait in order for the foot, which is plantarflexed at the ankle, to clear the ground
Normal gait See Table 2and Table 3
Rheumatoid gaitTypical of someone with rheumatoid disease
Characteristically shows an antalgic pattern with reduced gait velocity due to shortened stride length and reduced cadence, with an increased double-support phase and reluctance to load the forefoot and altered velocity of the centre of pressure profile
Scissors gaitTypical of someone with cerebral palsy
Characteristically shows spasticity of hip flexors and adductors, with hyperreflexia and clonus, internal hip rotation, contraction of the knee flexors leading to toe walking and cavovarus foot deformity
Toddler gaitTypical of a 12-15-month-old child who has just begun to walk
Characteristically shows a broad-based gait, with apparent flat foot and bow legs, partially flexed knees, lordosis and bulging of the abdomen, forward tilt of the body, arms extended sideways at the shoulders and/or the arms lifted up
Table 2: The gait (walking) cycle
Phase of the cyclePeriodComment
Stance phase (60%)ContactFrom heel strike to foot flat
Foot unlocks to act as a shock absorber and adapt to irregularities in the ground surface
MidstanceFrom foot flat to heel lift
The total weight-bearing surface of the foot is in contact with the walking surface
PropulsionFrom heel lift to toe off
Foot is a rigid and stable lever
Swing phase (40%)From toe off limb 1 to heel strike (limb 1)
Body mass transfers from limb 1 to limb 2
Table 3: Foot events occurring during normal bipedal gait
Stance phaseEvents/movements occurring
Leg 1
Heel strike (HS)Leg 1
STJ slightly supinated, so that:
• Posterior lateral area of the 'plantar heel pad' contacts the ground surface
• Forefoot is inverted relative to the ground surface
MTJ is also supinated, so that:
• Tibialis anterior tendon is contracted and prominent
• Limb decelerates
Hallux slightly dorsiflexed due to contraction of EHL
Leg 2
Knee of supporting leg is flexed
Heel off on supporting leg
From heel strike (HS) to foot flat (FF)Leg 1
STJ begins to pronate due to:
• Internal rotations within the lower limb
• Friction between the ground surface and the heel
MTJ also begins to pronate as:
• Tibialis anterior relaxes
• Ground reaction forces act on the fifth and fourth metatarsals
The plantar heel pad becomes weight-bearing
The lateral area, then the whole forefoot, loads rapidly
The hallux ceases to dorsiflex as soon as forefoot loading occurs
Once forefoot loading in leg 1 is completed (and leg 2 has undergone toe off) the STJ should pronate no further
Leg 2
Foot moving through propulsion phase, so that leg 1 loads fully as leg 2 undergoes toe off
From foot flat (FF) to midstance (MS)Leg 1
The leg and pelvis undergo external rotation
• STJ supinates
The knee is extended
• A bisecting line through the knee exits through the middle of the second metatarsal
• Leg 2 begins its swing phase
Midstance occurs when the leg is perpendicular to the ground
• The leg is directly over the foot
• STJ is neutral
• Tibialis anterior is relaxed
• Weight is evenly distributed across the heel pad
• MTJ is fully pronated
• Toes are flat to the ground surface, with no plantarflexion of the digits
• Leg 2 is in the middle of the swing phase and passes leg 1
Midstance (MS) to toe off (TO)Leg 1
As the body weight moves anteriorly over the foot, simultaneously:
• The knee flexes rapidly
• Gastrocnemius fires to bring about heel lift (just prior to heel contact of leg 2)
• Body weight transfers to the forefoot
The foot is supinating (due to the pull of gastrocnemius)
• There is no movement of the STJ, only movement at the MTJ
• MTJ locks to convert the foot to a rigid lever
Propulsion begins
• Body weight is distributed across the metatarsal heads
• First MTPJ is dorsiflexed but both first and fifth rays are parallel to the support surface
Propulsion continues
• The body weight continues to moves further forward
• First metatarsal plantarflexes and plantar aspect of first MTPJ becomes prominent
• Remainder of the foot supinates relative to the first ray and the height of the MLA increases
• Peroneus longus fires to stabilize the first ray (peroneus longus tendon becomes prominent)
• Body weight transfers from the lateral to the medial side of the foot
• Lateral aspect of the forefoot lifts (assists transference of body weight to leg 2)
• STJ supination reduces as foot begins to unload
Swing phaseEvents/movements occurring
Leg 1
Early swingPlantar aspect of first MTPJ still prominent
Toes dorsiflexed at MTPJs to allow ground clearance during swing
MidswingPlantar aspect of first MTPJ no longer prominent
Late swingSTJ and MTJ supinated due to contraction of tibialis anterior, EHL and EDL muscles

STJ, subtalar joint; MTJ, metatarsal joint; EHL, extensor hallucis longus; MTPJ, metatarsophalangeal joint; MLA, medial longitudinal arch; EDL, extensor digitorum longus.

gait

(gāt)
Manner of walking.

gait (gāt),

n a manner of walking; a cyclic loss and regaining of balance by a shift of the line of gravity in relationship to the center of gravity. A person's gait is as characteristic and as individual as a fingerprint.
gait, cerebellar,
n an unsteady, irregular gait characterized by short steps and a lurching from one side to the other; most commonly seen in multiple sclerosis or other cerebellar diseases.
gait, festinating,
n a gait characterized by rigidity, shuffling, and involuntary hastening. The upper part of the body advances ahead of the lower part. It is associated with paralysis agitans and postencephalitic Parkinson's syndrome.
gait, sensor ataxic,
n an irregular, uncertain, stamping gait. The legs are kept far apart, and either the ground or the feet are watched, because there has been a loss of knowledge of the position of the lower limbs. This gait is caused by an interruption of the afferent nerve fibers and may be associated with tabes dorsalis and sometimes with multiple sclerosis and other lesions of the nervous system.
gait, spastic,
n (creeping palsy) a slow, shuffling gait in which the patient appears to be wading in water. Knee and hip movements are restricted. This gait may be associated with multiple sclerosis, syphilis, combined systemic disease, or other diseases affecting the spinal pyramidal tracts.
gait, staggering,
n a reeling, tottering, and tipping gait in which the individual appears as if he may fall backward or lose his balance. It is associated with alcohol and barbiturate intoxication.
gait, waddling,
n an exaggerated alteration of lateral trunk movements, with an exaggerated elevation of the hip, suggesting the gait of a duck; characteristic of progressive muscular dystrophy.

gait

the manner or style of locomotion. Often used in assessing horses and dogs. See also ataxia, dysmetria, incoordination, spastic, stringhalt, walk, trot, canter, gallop (2), cadence, five-gaited.

gait analysis
evaluation of the manner or style of walking, usually done by observing the animal as it walks or trots in a straight line. The normal forward step consists of two phases: the stance phase, during which one or more legs and feet are bearing most or all of the body weight, and the swing phase, during which the other feet are not touching the walking surface and the body weight is borne by the others. In a complete two-step cycle all feet are in contact with the ground at the same time for about 25% of the time. This part of the cycle is called the double-support phase.
An analysis of each component of the three phases of ambulation is an essential part of the diagnosis of various neurological disorders and the assessment of patient progress during rehabilitation and recovery from the effects of a neurological disease, a musculoskeletal injury or disease process, or amputation of a lower extremity.
antalgic gait
a limp adopted so as to avoid pain on weight-bearing structures, characterized by a very short stance phase.
ataxic gait
an unsteady, uncoordinated walk, employing a wide base.
diagonal gait
one in which a forelimb is moved in unison with its opposite hindlimb, e.g. trot.
double-step gait
a gait in which there is a noticeable difference in the length or timing of alternate steps.
high stepping gait
may be normal in some fancy gaited horses. In others it may be a sign of blindness or poor proprioception, usually because of a defect in the sensory nervous system. It may also be a manifestation of hypermetria.
horse gait
there are three natural gaits, walk, trot, canter and two artificial gaits, the foxtrot, rack. There are a number of other less well-defined gaits similar to foxtrot.
spastic gait
a walk in which the legs move in a stiff manner, the toes seeming to drag and catch.
staggery gait
waddling gait
exaggerated alternation of lateral trunk movements with an exaggerated elevation of the hip, suggesting the gait of a duck.
References in periodicals archive ?
Leif Andersson from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences explored the distribution of a mutation in the DMRT3 gene which affects the gait of horses, known as the "gait keeper.
Gaitedness' is a trait that naturally occurs in all horses, but many breeds have been developed for a specific speed or gait," Cothran explains.
The purposes of this single-subject case study were to quantify (1) the neurotherapeutic effects of FES-augmented OGT on volitional gait function and (2) the neuroprosthetic effects of an implanted FES system apart from those volitionally achievable.
At Georgia Tech, researchers are studying two types of gait identification technologies: one uses computer vision, the other, a radar system.
That's when we established GAITS and started the process of becoming ISO certified.
There is common agreement that the primary clinical presentation of FA is gait disorder or ataxia (7).
For individuals with gait disabilities to become fully integrated in the community in which they live, they must meet or exceed the functional capacity required to be mobile within their specific environment.
Videos of Ruina and others demonstrating all three gaits are at http://ruina.
So what is this special gait and why is the breed unique ?
We are excited about our new facility in Albuquerque to accommodate our expanding business presence in the community and at Sandia Labs," confirms Harry Thornsvard, GAITS President and Chief Operating Officer.