was performed without tranquilizing the pup.
Three-drug anti-tuberculous therapy (with rifampin, isoniazid, and streptomycin) was introduced despite chest and bone radiographs that were negative for infection, no abnormalities found on funduscopy
, and negative results of Ziehl-Neelsen staining of lymph node tissue.
Neurologic examination was normal, with normal visual fields and funduscopy
All patients underwent detailed ophthalmologic examination including ocular history, visual acuity testing, slit-lamp biomicroscopy for evidence of pseudoexfoliatory material on the edge of the pupil or lens, applanation tonometry and indirect funduscopy
In patients suspected of glaucoma and/or diagnosed with PXS, an additional examination was carried out including gonioscopy and visual field testing.
revealed typical signs of PRA with change in tapetal reflectivity.
Clinical examination has included complete ocular examination including inspection, slitlamp examination and funduscopy
, there was bilateral striking cupping with cup-to-disc ratios of 8/10 in OD and approximately 10/10 in OS.
Gallium and technetium scans, upper gastrointestinal series, abdominal computed tomography (CT), and ocular funduscopy
were all unremarkable.
The eyes were examined in order, as given below (i) signalment and history (ii) clinical examination (iii) evaluation of different reflexes (iv) application of topical anesthesia - supra orbital nerve block if needed- examination of adnexal structures (v) examination of anterior chamber (vi) USG (vii) dilatation of pupil with mydriatics (viii) funduscopy
(examination of lens, examination of vitreous, retina and optic nerve).
was performed with +78 D lens, when feasible.