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Semen collected, analyzed and stored at −196°F (−90°C) for future use in artificial insemination by clinics specializing in infertility. In artificial insemination the number of successful pregnancies is lower with frozen semen than with fresh.
See also: semen
said of material kept at less than 0°C. Biological materials are frozen solid because of their high water content.
see embryo transfer.
meat preserved at low temperatures in a freezer.
a specimen of tissue that has been quick-frozen, cut by microtome, and stained immediately for rapid diagnosis of possible malignant lesions. A specimen processed in this manner is not satisfactory for detailed study of the cells, but it is valuable because it is quick and gives the surgeon immediate information regarding the malignancy of a piece of tissue.
fluid discharged at ejaculation in the male, consisting of spermatozoa in their nutrient plasma, secretions from the prostate, seminal vesicles and various other glands, epithelial cells and minor constituents.
for artificial insemination or laboratory evaluation or examination in a clinicopathological sense. Done by artificial vagina, electroejaculation, genital massage.
the number of spermatozoa per ml in the ejaculate.
there are a number of suitable diluents with some preference being given to one or other of them in each species. There are also different diluters for chilled liquid semen as distinct from frozen semen. Most diluters are based on biological fluids such as whole or skim milk, buttermilk, cream and egg yolk. The general cryoprotectant for freezing is glycerol. Called also semen extender.
see semen diluent (above).
semen stored in liquid nitrogen at −196°C (−321°F).
semen non-sperm portion
see semen pre-sperm fraction (below).
semen pre-sperm fraction
the accessory gland fluid emitted at the beginning of ejaculation.
part of an ejaculate collected for laboratory examination.
semen sperm-rich fraction
the portion of the ejaculate containing most of the spermatozoa.
concretions of amorphous cellular debris and clumps of nuclear material found in seminal vesicles of bulls.
chilled bull semen stored at 5°C can be stored and used for 5 days; frozen bull semen (−79°C using dry ice or −196°C using liquid nitrogen) can be stored and used successfully for up to 10 years, with only a small drop in fertility after 40 years.