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The phase lag is defined as the value of the difference between the phase of the oscillation at the beam free-end and the phase of the excitation at the beam base.
The remaining 16 chapters walk through case studies of placing restorations on implanted patients with multi-tooth gaps, free-end situations, and single-tooth gaps in the maxilla, mandible, or anterior maxilla.
The front and back parts feature free-end edges with opposing side edges.
A series of pressure tests were carried out at different hoop stresses using both fixed-end and free-end enclosures.
Free-end enclosures fasten to the pipe and allow the generation of a longitudinal tensile stress as well as a hoop stress when an internal pressure is applied to the pipe.
The C-ring results were higher than the pressure test results using both free-end enclosures and fixed-end enclosures.
At one hour, the hoop stress for the free-end line of best fit is 41.
The effect of increasing residual stress on free-end specimens is greater than on fixed ends.
Ignoring residual stress, the one hour yield stress calculated for the free-end test is 36.
The hoop stress at rupture for free-ends is 15% higher than for fixed-ends only when there is no residual stress.