free energy


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Related to free energy: Gibbs free energy, perpetual motion, free electricity

energy

 [en´er-je]
power that may be translated into motion, overcoming resistance or causing a physical change; the ability to do work. Energy assumes several forms; it may be thermal (in the form of heat), electrical, mechanical, chemical, radiant, or kinetic. In doing work, the energy is changed from one form to one or more other form(s). In these changes some of the energy is “lost” in the sense that it cannot be recaptured and used again. Usually there is loss in the form of heat, which escapes or is dissipated unused; all energy changes give off a certain amount of heat.ƒ

All activities of the body require energy, and all needs are met by the consumption of food containing energy in chemical form. The human diet comprises three main sources of energy: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Of these three, carbohydrates most readily provide the kind of energy needed to activate muscles. Proteins work to build and restore body tissues. The body transforms chemical energy derived from food by the process of metabolism, an activity that takes place in the individual cell. Molecules of the food substances providing energy pass through the cell wall. Inside the cell, chemical reactions occur that produce the new forms of energy and yield by-products such as water and waste materials; see also adenosine triphosphate.
free energy (Gibbs free energy (G)) the energy equal to the maximum amount of work that can be obtained from a process occurring under conditions of fixed temperature and pressure.
nuclear energy energy that can be liberated by changes in the nucleus of an atom (as by fission of a heavy nucleus or by fusion of light nuclei into heavier ones with accompanying loss of mass).

free en·er·gy (F),

a thermodynamic function symbolized as F, or G (Gibbs free energy), = H - TS, where H is the enthalpy of a system, T the absolute temperature, and S the entropy; chemical reactions proceed spontaneously in the direction that involves a net decrease in the free energy of the system (that is, ΔG < 0).

free en·er·gy

(F) (frē en'ĕr-jē)
A thermodynamic function symbolized as F, or G (Gibbs free energy), =H-TS, where H is the enthalpy of a system, T the absolute temperature, and S the entropy; chemical reactions proceed spontaneously in the direction that involves a net decrease in the free energy of the system (i.e., ΔG < 0).

free energy

the amount of energy that is available for work when released in a chemical reaction. For example, when a molecule of ATP is hydrolysed to ADP + P, the free energy released is about 34 kJ.

energy

power that may be translated into motion, overcoming resistance, or effecting physical change; the ability to do work. Energy assumes several forms; it may be thermal (in the form of heat), electrical, mechanical, chemical, radiant or kinetic. In doing work, the energy is changed from one form to another or to several forms. In these changes some of the energy is 'lost' in the sense that it cannot be recaptured and used again. Usually there is loss in the form of heat, which escapes or is dissipated unused. All energy changes give off a certain amount of the energy as heat.
All activities of the body require energy, and all needs are met by the consumption of food containing energy in chemical form. The animal diet comprises three main sources of energy: carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Of these three, carbohydrates most readily provide the kind of energy needed to activate muscles. Proteins work to build and restore body tissues. The body transforms chemical energy derived from food by the process of metabolism, an activity that takes place in the individual cell. Molecules of the food substances providing energy pass through the cell membrane. Inside the cell, chemical reactions occur that produce the new forms of energy and yield by-products such as water and waste materials. See also adenosine.

dietary energy
the total energy intake in the diet is the gross energy. Digestible energy is gross energy less fecal energy. Metabolizable energy is digestible energy less that lost in fermentation in the gut, energy lost in urine. Net energy is metabolizable energy less energy used in specific dynamic action response. Expressed as joules, calories or occasionally therms (1 calorie=4.18 joule).
energy density
see caloric density.
energy feeds
feeds with a high carbohydrate content and therefore low fiber (<18%) and="" protein=""><20%)>
free energy
the energy equal to the maximum amount of work that can be obtained from a process occurring under conditions of fixed temperature and pressure.
nuclear energy
energy that can be liberated by changes in the nucleus of an atom (as by fission of a heavy nucleus or by fusion of light nuclei into heavier ones with accompanying loss of mass).
nutritional energy deficiency
causes loss of body weight, milk, egg and wool production. Continued for long periods or severe restriction causes particular metabolic upsets in pregnant and lactating ewes and cows—see pregnancy toxemia, acetonemia (2); in neonates, hypoglycemia. In others causes emaciation, inanition, starvation.
energy production
production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation or anaerobic glycolysis.
energy requirements
generally vary between species and particularly between individuals. They are determined by many factors, especially age, level of activity, physiological status and body size, specifically body surface area. The basal energy requirement (BER) is the level required by a healthy animal at complete rest in a neutral environmental temperature. It can be calculated by using several formulae, based on body weight or body surface area, which is then used in the further calculation of the maintenance energy requirement (MER) which takes into account the individual animal's level of activity or disease status.
energy reserves
any reduced carbon stored in compounds such as fatty acids in triacylglycerols of adipose tissue, glucose in glycogen, and amino acids in protein releases energy, ultimately in the form of ATP on oxidation of the carbon.
energy transfer
conversion of energy from one form usually chemical in the form of ATP to another usually chemical, but can be electrical, mechanical or heat energy.
References in periodicals archive ?
There is one company based in New Albany, Indiana called Creative Science and Research, that claims to be a free energy company, and sells plans for these heaters.
Wetting properties of non-printing and printing areas of printing plates were calculated by measuring the contact angle of three liquids of known surface free energy and viscosity (Tab.
Customers who are thinking about applying for the zero-interest loan program must first schedule a free energy audit, Ms.
SMEC is in favor of giving 10 percent free energy, but from a different project, and not from West Seti itself,'' he said.
The free energy from the landfill makes it possible for nursery director Lisa Rayburn to extend the growing season into early spring and late fall, and she expects to sell 50,000 plants to local nurseries this year.
Different faces (orientations) give slightly different values for properties such as free energy, mobility, and stiffness (surface tension), and these properties play a crucial role in how the microstructure of a metal evolves during solidification.
Contact angle measurements are the tool to measure the surface free energy of fibers as well as liquids and surrounding matrices.
They distinguished 47 distinctive properties of living beings, among them self-reproduction (27 mentions by different authors), capability of (negentropy) evolution (26), ability to extract free energy and matter from the environment (16), ability to perform and control metabolism (15), ability to store and replicate genetic information (12), ability to grow (10), capable of thermodynamic and chemical disequilibrium (9), ability to have autocatalysis (9), existence of genome and genetic code (7), availability of membranes as geochemical barriers (7), at the highest level of complexity (7), foresight and ability to modify own behavior (7), composed of carbon-based polymers (6), etc.
Member states should provide free energy audits to enable citizens to cut their energy use and reduce emissions," said Dutch Socialist MEP Dorette Corbey.
Interface phenomena happen between liquid and solid phase, like water solution and textile material, resulting in change of textile material surface free energy.
The government would like everyone to do their bit as part of the Carbon Emissions Reduction Target and in support of this scheme we have teamed up with Lime to offer two free energy saving products to get you started.
DON'T just stand by, start saving with a FREE Energy Saving Plug, worth pounds 19.