This new field is quite different in approach and method from the formal logic
of Aristotle's syllogisms, or the new formal logics
, mathematical and symbolic which proliferated in the twentieth century, because it was less interested in standards of deductive validity than in the manner in which people actually think and reach conclusions.
Informal logic, more so than formal logic
, is that which is most often employed in academic arguments.
He referred to his final expression of the formal logic
of history as "the irrational logic of the new and creative.
A more accurate definition of formal logic
would be: The study of logical form, where logical form is understood as that by virtue of which an individual proposition or argument can be classified as an instance of a conceptual type whose properties affect validity of inference.
A similar resistance to employing formal logic
characterizes other traditional groups that researchers have studied since Luria's time, such the Kpelle of western Africa and Guatemalan Mayans, the Michigan psychologist adds.
Still, shared concerns emerge, notably the place of metanarrative in postmodern writing, how changing relationships between poet and society shape text and audience, and that ever-present question of how various kinds of turath (heritage) provide the thematic and formal logic
of so much contemporary writing.
Learning the laws of logical fallacy in a sterile, formal logic
class will never stick in someone's mind as well as this humorous, pragmatic guide to logic and its real world use.
As might be expected with this kind of close adherence to formal logic
, Borthwick's metatheory would allow for the computer-generation of analytical results; as it turns out, though, cranking even the simplest piece through the machinery of Borthwick's metatheory will produce more information than most analysts will want - or even need - to deal with.
Not only the rules of language but those of formal logic
and, indeed, every sort of authoritarian structure and behavior are deconstructed, whether social codes, or the form of the nineteenth-century novel, or the conventions of popular literature, or the authority of God and the church (which are allowed at best a fictive status).
Ramsey's distinction between formal logic
and human logic to formulate his own approach to knowing and acting.
Logic is presented as emerging from the activities of inquiry and communication, allowing readers to understand even the most difficult aspects of formal logic
as straightforward developments of the process of anticipating and taking action.
Aristotle presents a formal logic
in the Prior Analytics in which the premises and conclusions are never conditionals.