foreignness


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foreignness

a characteristic required for antigens, to be recognized as not a normal self constituent.
References in periodicals archive ?
As for the foreignness effect (full sample), complying with Mexico's Clean Industry Program may represent an unnecessary redundancy in the eyes of foreign managers.
However, while the liability of foreignness associated with arm's length exports increases with cultural distance, the liability of foreignness associated with its substitute, arm's length affiliate sales, increases even more rapidly.
Additionally, the country-of-origin literature suggests that ethnicity can be used by MNEs to overcome the liability of foreignness (Dinnie 2004).
This point is valid especially at the inter-regional level, given the liability of interregional foreignness (Rugman/ Verbeke 2007a).
Third, as earlier explained, cross-border knowledge is likely to suffer from liabilities of foreignness (Zaheer 1995) and unprovenness (Rogers 1983; Szulanski 1996) which hamper the learning process because of the resistance of managers to accept the cross-border knowledge.
Once a foreignness determination is made, NSA analysts must ascertain "how, when, with whom, and where" the target communicates.
This statement relates the speed of the internationalization process with the find of connections or links in the host country in order to develop a local network; thus, this approach takes into account as background the network theory, developed by Johanson and Vahlne (1990, 2009) when these authors have made an update of their Uppsala Model (Johanson, Vahlne 1977), but also relates the overcome of the liability of foreignness and the liability of outsidership with a close relationship with some local (host) market partner.
Her first book is a collection of such short takes - with a quality of foreignness to the voice that forms quirky folk-tales and vignettes, urban and pastoral, in Prose.
She is an associate Professor of Anthropology, Women's Studies, and African Studies at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor and the Author of Embodying honor: Fertility, Foreignness, and Regeneration in Eastern Sudan, Wisconsin University Press, 2007
worldlittoday: World Literature should be defined by foreignness of form.
They examine theories (such as those of foreignness by Homer and Hesiod, genealogies and origins, environmental theories, genetic theories, and custom or culture theories), and present the composition of the peoples of the ancient world (Egypt, Libya, Carthage and Numidia, Ethiopia, Persia, the Parthians, Judea and the Jewish diaspora, and China and the edge of the world), then analyze Europe's Black Sea region, Gaul, Germany and Britain.
seekers (22) face on account of foreignness, introducing an important