footwear function

footwear function

protection, aesthetics, facilitation of certain tasks and activities, and to assist compensation for abnormality or foot effects of systemic disease; foot function is facilitated by footwear construction and last design (Tables F6-F9; see Table 1)
Table 1: Last shapes
Last typeRationale
OutflareSlight outflare along the lateral border of the shoe
The distal projection of the longitudinal bisection of the underside of the shell divides the forefoot into two unequal halves, where the lateral segment is slightly larger than the medial segment
Indicated for patients with marked pes planovalgus
Straight/ semistraightNo or very slight in-flare along the medial border
The distal projection of the longitudinal bisection of the underside of the heel divides the forefoot sole into two equal halves
The most supportive shoe shape
Indicated for patients who overpronate or those with pes valgus
SemicurvedGreater degree of in-flare along the medial border
The distal projection of the longitudinal bisection of the underside of the heel divides the forefoot sole into two unequal halves, where the medial segment is slightly wider than the lateral segment
It offers some medial support, but not so much as the straight last
The greater majority of shoes are manufactured to a semicurved last
CurvedMarked in-flare along medial border
The distal projection of the longitudinal bisection of the underside of the heel divides the forefoot sole into two unequal halves, where the medial segment is much wider than the lateral segment
Used for the manufacture of light-weight running shoes as the in-flare is reputed to maximize forward speed
Suitable for patients with non-mobile pes cavus, and for those that mid- or forefoot strike

It is important that the foot shape is compatible with the shape of the last to which the shoe is made. For example, the dorsa of the third, fourth and fifth toes will be subject to marked shoe trauma if a foot that shows excess pronation is accommodated in a shoe made to a curved last.

References in periodicals archive ?
Dr Casey Kerrigan, from JKM Technologies in Virginia, US, who led the study said: "Reducing joint torques with footwear completely to that of barefoot running, while providing meaningful footwear functions, especially compliance, should be the goal of new footwear designs.
Kerrigan concluded: "Reducing joint torques with footwear completely to that of barefoot running, while providing meaningful footwear functions, especially compliance, should be the goal of new footwear designs.