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pad

 [pad]
a cushion-like mass of soft material.
abdominal pad a pad for the absorption of discharges from abdominal wounds, or for packing off abdominal viscera to improve exposure during surgery. Called also laparotomy pad.
dinner pad a pad placed over the stomach before a plaster jacket is applied; the pad is then removed to leave space under the jacket to take care of expansion of the stomach after eating.
infrapatellar fat pad a large pad of fat lying behind and below the patella.
knuckle p's nodular thickenings of the skin on the dorsal surface of the interphalangeal joints.
laparotomy pad abdominal p.
sucking pad (suctorial pad) a lobulated mass of fat that occupies the space between the masseter muscle and the external surface of the buccinator muscle. It is well developed in infants.

pad

(pad),
1. Soft material forming a cushion, used in applying or relieving pressure on a part, or in filling a depression so that dressings can fit snugly.
2. A more or less encapsulated body of fat or some other tissue serving to fill a space or act as a cushion in the body (that is, heel pad).

pad

(pad) a cushionlike mass of soft material.
abdominal pad  a pad for the absorption of discharges from abdominal wounds or for packing off abdominal viscera to improve exposure during surgery.
buccal fat pad  sucking p.
dinner pad  a pad placed over the stomach before a plaster jacket is applied; the pad is then removed, leaving space under the jacket to accommodate expansion of the stomach after eating.
infrapatellar fat pad  a large pad of fat lying behind and below the patella.
knuckle pads  nodular thickenings of the skin on the dorsal surface of the interphalangeal joints.
retromolar pad  a cushion-like mass of tissue situated at the distal termination of the mandibular residual ridge.
sucking pad , suctorial pad a lobulated mass of fat that occupies the space between the masseter and the external surface of the buccinator; it is well developed in infants.

pad

(păd)
n.
1.
a. A thin, cushionlike mass of soft material used to fill, to give shape, or to protect against jarring, scraping, or other injury.
b. Sports A piece of equipment consisting of shaped cushioning material often attached to a hard outer surface and worn to protect against blows, collisions, or shots.
2.
a. The fleshy underside of the end of a finger or toe.
b. The cushionlike flesh on the underside of the toes and feet of many animals.
c. The foot of such an animal.
tr.v. padded, padding, pads
To line or stuff with soft material.

pad′less adj.

pad

Etymology: D, paden, cushion
1 a mass of soft material used to cushion shock, prevent wear, or absorb moisture, such as the abdominal pads used to absorb discharges from abdominal wounds or to separate viscera and improve accessibility during abdominal surgery.
2 (in anatomy) a mass of fat that cushions various structures, such as the infrapatellar pad lying below the patella among the patellar ligament, the head of the tibia, and the femoral condyles.

PAD

1 abbreviation for peripheral arterial disease.
2 abbreviation for pulsatile assist device.

DHX40

A gene on chromosome 17q23.1 that encodes a probable member of the Asp-Glu-Ala-His (DEAH)-motif-containing family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases.

PAD

1. Panic/anxiety disorder. See Panic disorder.
2. Peripheral arterial disease. See Peripheral vascular disease.
3. Preoperative autologous donation. See Autologous donation.
4. Public access defibrillator Cardiology A portable defibrillator for on-scene management of cardiac arrest victims in public locations–airports, planes, malls, stadiums, first-response vehicle. See Defibrillator.

pad

Vox populi
1. A fleshy mass, often subcutaneous skin. See Dancer's pad, Heel pad.
2. A wad of absorbent material. See Loofah pad, Superstat hemostatic wound pad.

PAD

Abbreviation for peripheral arterial disease.

pad

(pad)
1. A thin cushion of resilient or absorbent material applied to relieve pressure or absorb fluid.
2. A more or less encapsulated body of fat or some other tissue serving to fill a space or act as a cushion in the body.

pad

(pad)
1. A cushion of soft material, usually cotton or rayon, used to apply pressure, relieve pressure, or support an organ or part.
2. A fleshlike or fatty mass.

abdominal pad

A dressing for absorbing discharges from surgical wounds of the abdomen.

Bichat's fat pad

Sucking pad.

buccal fat pad

Sucking pad.

dinner pad

A pad placed on the abdomen before application of a plaster cast.

dorsocervical fat pad

Buffalo hump.
Enlarge picture
FAT PAD: prolapse of orbital fat pad at the lateral canthus of the eye

fat pad

1. Sucking pad.
Enlarge picture
FAT PAD: prolapse of orbital fat pad at the lateral canthus of the eye
2. A layer of adipose tissue (usually capsulated) that protects structures from direct impact. Fat pads are found in various locations in the body: beneath the patellar tendon; under the calcaneus; or behind the elbow. See: illustration

kidney pad

An air or water pad fixed on an abdominal belt belt for external protection of the kidney.

knuckle pads

A congenital condition in which small nodules appear on the dorsal side of fingers.

laparotomy pad

A gauze pad with radioopaque marker employed to absorb fluids and/ or to pack off mobile viscera intraoperatively; commonly referred to as lap pad.

Malgaigne pad

See: Malgaigne pad

Mikulicz pad

See: Mikulicz-Radecki, Johann von

perineal pad

A pad covering the perineum; used to cover a wound or to absorb the menstrual flow.

sucking pad

A mass of fat in the cheeks, esp. well developed in an infant, aiding sucking.
Synonym: Bichat's fat pad; buccal fat pad

surgical pad

1. An absorbent gauze pad such as a laparotomy pad
2. A soft rubber pad with an apron and inflatable rim for drainage of escaping fluids; used in surgery and obstetrics.

disease

pathogenic entity characterized by an identifiable aetiological agent, group of signs and symptoms and/or consistent anatomical alterations; see syndrome

peripheral vascular disease

generic term denoting reduced arterial supply to, and compromised venous/lymphatic return from, the lower limbs and feet; see disease, peripheral vascular
peripheral vascular disease; peripheral arterial disease; PAD generic term denoting lower-limb macrovascular disease (e.g. arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, arterial stensois or blockage) or the symptoms of macrovascular disease (e.g. intermittent claudication, rest pain, dry gangrene); patients with PAD are likely to have similar vascular effects in brain, heart and kidney arteries (see Table 1, Table 2and Table 3)
Table 1: Risk factors for the development of peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
Risk factorFeature of the risk factor
Modifiable factors
SmokingCigarette smoking is the most powerful risk factor for the development of PAD. It is dose-dependent and the risk declines within 6 months of quitting. A non-smoker is 10 times less likely to develop PAD than a smoker
Blood lipid disordersPlasma cholesterol levels of >5.2 mmol/L
Increased plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, low plasma concentrations of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), and higher concentrations of plasma triglycerides all correlate with increased incidence of PAD
Familial hypercholesterolaemia (affecting 1:500 in UK)
Familial combined hyperlipidaemia (affecting 1:250 in UK)
Diabetes mellitus (DM)Type 2 DM increases risk of PAD by 1.5-4.0, due to the associated hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and altered vascular reactivity
HypertensionRaised systolic blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of PAD and atherosclerosis by 4 due to endothelial injury caused by increased intra-arterial shear stresses at the blood-endothelium interface (raised systolic pressures are more predictive than raised diastolic pressures)
ObesityCentral obesity is an independent risk for PAD, but also predisposes to other risk factors for PAD, such as type 2 DM, hypertension
HomocysteineHomocysteine is an amino acid that in high levels is associated with thromboembolism
Haemostatic variablesIncreased levels of clotting factors VII, VIIIC and fibrinogen are associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis
Sedentary lifestyleLow levels of regular activity are associated with increased risk of PAD (higher levels of activity are associated with higher levels of plasma HDL-cholesterol and reduced blood pressures and facilitate the development of the collateral circulation)
Dietary deficienciesLow levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamins C and E) and polyunsaturated fatty acids facilitate the formation of oxidized LDLs and thus predispose to the risk of PAD
Type A behaviours (TABs)People who tend to aggression, ambitiousness, restlessness, time urgency and high anxiety tend to an increased incidence of PAD, possibly due to increased levels of circulating catecholamines
Non-modifiable or fixed factors
Age and sexAtherosclerosis is more common in males, and in postmenopausal women
Family historyAtherosclerosis shows familial patterns of incidence, possibly due to genetic factors and/or lifestyle choices and patterns
Early environmentFetal origins hypothesis: adverse conditions in utero or infancy predispose to the risk of cardiovascular disease in later life (e.g. statistically, small-birth-weight babies have a higher incidence in adult life of hypertension, type 2 DM, altered plasma lipids, altered bone densities, altered stress responses, less elastic arteries, thicker-walled ventricles and 'age' quicker)
Table 2: Fontaine classification of peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
StageCharacteristic symptoms
1Clinically symptom-free vascular occlusion
2Exercise-induced ischaemia causing intermittent claudication
No pain at rest
3Ischaemia at rest, causing rest pain
4Ulceration and ischaemic gangrene
Table 3: Clinical tests used in the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
Test modalityDiagnostic indicators
Medical history• Evidence of atherosclerosis, such as ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease
• Risk of atherosclerosis, such as cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus
Pulses in the lower limbPopliteal, posterior tibial, dorsalis pedis and peroneal pulses
• Pulse quality (bounding, full, normal, weak, absent)
• Rate (beats/minute)
• Regularity (regular, irregular, regularly irregular, irregularly irregular)
Presenting symptoms• Cold, numb feet
• Intermittent claudication
• Rest pain
• Painful ulceration
Ankle-brachial index (ABI)• 0.9-1.1 = normal
• 0.7-0.9 = PAD, some compromise of tissue viability
• 0.5-0.7 = severe PAD, compromised tissue viability
• <0.5 = threat of ischaemic gangrene/very poor tissue viability
• >1.2 = calcification of tunica media of leg/foot artery, compromised tissue viability
Segmental systolic pressureSerial measurement of systolic blood pressure along length of limb:
• A sudden decrease indicates the location of the vascular obstruction
Venous filling time
Note : this test is not valid if the patient has venous incompetence
The time it takes for veins to refill in a limb that has been drained of venous blood (with the patient supine, the leg is elevated to 45° for 1 minute, then the leg placed in a dependent position and the time taken for the dorsal foot veins to refill)
• <15 seconds = normal
• 20-30 seconds = moderate ischaemia
• >40 seconds = severe ischaemia
Buerger's testThe observation of the change in skin colour in response to limb elevation and dependency (with the patient supine, the leg is elevated to 45° for 1 minute, then the leg is placed in a dependent position and the time taken for normal skin colour to return is noted)
• <10 seconds = normal response
• Patchy persistent rubor indicates limb ischaemia
• Persistent pallor (>10 seconds) indicates limb ischaemia
• Persistent cyanosis indicates limb ischaemia
Buerger's angleThe colour response of the sole of the foot to limb elevation (with the patient supine, the leg is elevated and the angle of limb elevation is noted when the skin of medial longitudinal arch shows pallor)
• 60-70° = normal arterial supply to foot
• < 45° = compromised arterial supply to foot
• < 30° = severe compromised arterial supply to foot
Capillary refill time
Note: this test is not valid if the patient has signs of current Raynaud's disease
The time taken for normal skin tone of a horizontal limb to return after the nail bed or digital pulp has been compressed by thumb pressure
• <5 seconds = normal response
• >5 seconds = some ischaemia
• >15 seconds = marked ischaemia
Doppler sounds• Triphasic = normal
• Biphasic = normal/some loss of arterial elasticity
• Monophasic = loss of arterial elasticity/arterial stenosis
• Loud = high rate of blood flow
• Quiet = slow rate of blood flow
• No sound = no blood flow (proximal arterial occlusion)
Skin temperature
Note: this test is not valid if the patient has signs of current Raynaud's disease
• ~ 31°C = normal foot skin temperature
• <29°C = possible poor skin perfusion

pad

(pad)
1. Portion of finger that rests on dental instrument.
2. Soft material forming a cushion, used in applying or relieving pressure on a part, or in filling a depression so that dressings can fit snugly.
3. More or less encapsulated body of fat or some other tissue serving to fill a space or act as a cushion in the body (e.g., heel pad).

pad

a cushion-like mass of soft material which may be (1) anatomical; (2) surgical.

abdominal pad
a pad for the absorption of discharges from abdominal wounds, or for packing off abdominal viscera to improve exposure during surgery.
communal pad
metacarpal pad.
fat pad
a pad of fat lying within a joint, covered with synovial membrane and thought to assist in the spreading of synovial lubricant, e.g. infrapatellar fat pad of stifle joint.
foot p's
see footpad.
Mikulicz's pad
a pad made of folded gauze, for packing off viscera in surgical procedures.
pressure pad
in surgery, gauze sponges used to apply pressure in the control of minor hemorrhage.
stripped pad
avulsion of the pad with exposure of the dermis. A common injury in Greyhounds which have raced on asphalt or been over-exercised on a walking machine with a rough belt.