food poisoning


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Food Poisoning

 

Definition

Food poisoning is a general term for health problems arising from eating contaminated food. Food may be contaminated by bacteria, viruses, environmental toxins, or toxins present within the food itself, such as the poisons in some mushrooms or certain seafood. Symptoms of food poisoning usually involve nausea, vomiting and/or diarrhea. Some food-borne toxins can affect the nervous system.

Description

Every year millions of people suffer from bouts of vomiting and diarrhea each year that they blame on "something I ate." These people are generally correct. Each year in the United States, one to two bouts of diarrheal illness occur in every adult. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that there are from six to 33 million cases of food poisoning in the United States annually. Many cases are mild and pass so rapidly that they are never diagnosed. Occasionally a severe outbreak creates a newsworthy public health hazard.
Classical food poisoning, sometimes incorrectly called ptomaine poisoning, is caused by a variety of different bacteria. The most common are Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 or other E. coli strains, Shigella, and Clostridium botulinum. Each has a slightly different incubation period and duration, but all except C. botulinum cause inflammation of the intestines and diarrhea. Sometimes food poisoning is called bacterial gastroenteritis or infectious diarrhea. Food and water can also be contaminated by viruses (such as the Norwalk agent that causes diarrhea and the viruses of hepatitis A and E), environmental toxins (heavy metals), and poisons produced within the food itself (mushroom poisoning or fish and shellfish poisoning).
Careless food handling during the trip from farm to table creates conditions for the growth of bacteria that make people sick. Vegetables that are eaten raw, such as lettuce, may be contaminated by bacteria in soil, water, and dust during washing and packing. Home canned and commercially canned food may be improperly processed at too low a temperature or for too short a time to kill the bacteria.
Raw meats carry many food-borne bacterial diseases. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) estimates that 60% or more of raw poultry sold at retail carry some diseasecausing bacteria. Other raw meat products and eggs are contaminated to a lesser degree. Thorough cooking kills the bacteria and makes the food harmless. However, properly cooked food can become recontaminated if it comes in contact with plates, cutting boards, countertops, or utensils that were used with raw meat and not cleaned and sanitized.
Cooked foods can also be contaminated after cooking by bacteria carried by food handlers or from bacteria in the environment. It is estimated that 50% of healthy people have the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus in their nasal passages and throat, and on their skin and hair. Rubbing a runny nose, then touching food can introduce the bacteria into cooked food. Bacteria flourish at room temperature, and will rapidly grow into quantities capable of making people sick. To prevent this growth, food must be kept hot or cold, but never just warm.
Although the food supply in the United States is probably the safest in the world, anyone can get food poisoning. Serious outbreaks are rare. When they occur, the very young, the very old, and those with immune system weaknesses have the most severe and life-threatening cases. For example, this group is 20 times more likely to become infected with the Salmonella bacteria than the general population.
Common Pathogens Causing Food Poisoning
Pathogen Common Host(s)
Campylobacter Poultry
E.coli 0157:H7 Undercooked, contaminated ground beef
Listeria Found in a variety of raw foods, such as uncooked
meats and vegetables, and in processed foods that
become contaminated after processing
Salmonella Poultry, eggs, meat, and milk
Shigella This bacteria is transmitted through direct contact with
an infected person or from food or water that become
contaminated by an infected person
Vibrio Contaminated seafood
Travel outside the United States to countries where less attention is paid to sanitation, water purification, and good food handling practices increases the chances that a person will get food poisoning. People living in institutions such as nursing homes are also more likely to get food poisoning.

Causes and symptoms

The symptoms of food poisoning occur because food-borne bacteria release toxins or poisons as a byproduct of their growth in the body. These toxins (except those from C. botulinum) cause inflammation and swelling of the stomach, small intestine and/or large intestine. The result is abdominal muscle cramping, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and the chance of dehydration. The severity of symptoms depends on the type of bacteria, the amount consumed, and the individual's general health and sensitivity to the bacterial toxin.

Salmonella

According to a 2001 report from the CDC, Salmonella caused almost 50,000 culture-confirmed cases of food poisoning in the United States annually. However, between two and four million probably occur each year. Salmonella is found in egg yolks from infected chickens, in raw and undercooked poultry and in other meats, dairy products, fish, shrimp, and many more foods. The CDC estimates that one out of every 50 consumers is exposed to a contaminated egg yolk each year. However, thorough cooking kills the bacteria and makes the food harmless. Salmonella is also found in the feces of pet reptiles such as turtles, lizards, and snakes.
About one out of every 1,000 people get food poisoning from Salmonella. Of these, two-thirds are under age 20, with the majority under age nine. Most cases occur in the warm months between July and October.
Symptoms of food poisoning begin eight to 72 hours after eating food contaminated with Salmonella. These include traditional food poisoning symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. The symptoms generally last one to five days. Dehydration can be a complication in severe cases. People generally recover without antibiotic treatment, although they may feel tired for a week after the active symptoms subside.

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus is found on humans and in the environment in dust, air, and sewage. The bacteria is spread primarily by food handlers using poor sanitary practices. Almost any food can be contaminated, but salad dressings, milk products, cream pastries, and any food kept at room temperature, rather than hot or cold are likely candidates.
It is difficult to estimate the number of cases of food poisoning from Staphylococcus aureus that occur each year, because its symptoms are so similar to those caused by other foodborne bacteria. Many cases are mild and the victim never sees a doctor.
Symptoms appear rapidly, usually one to six hours after the contaminated food is eaten. The acute symptoms of vomiting and severe abdominal cramps without fever usually last only three to six hours and rarely more than 24 hours. Most people recover without medical assistance. Deaths are rare.

Escherichia coli (e. coli)

There are many strains of E. coli, and not all of them are harmful. The strain that causes most severe food poisoning is E. coli O157:H7. Food poisoning by E. coli occurs in three out of every 10,000 people. Foodborne E. coli is found and transmitted mainly in food derived from cows such as raw milk, raw or rare ground beef and fruit or vegetables that are contaminated.
Symptoms of food poisoning from E. coli are slower to appear than those caused by some of the other foodborne bacteria. E. coli produces toxins in the large intestine rather than higher up in the digestive system. This accounts for the delay in symptoms and the fact that vomiting rarely occurs in E. coli food poisoning.
One to three days after eating contaminated food, the victim with E. coli O157:H7 begins to have severe abdominal cramps and watery diarrhea that usually becomes bloody within 24 hours. There is little or no fever, and rarely does the victim vomit. The bloody, watery diarrhea lasts from one to eight days in uncomplicated cases.

Campylobacter jejuni (c. jejuni)

According to the FDA, C. jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhea in the United States. It is responsible for more cases of bacterial diarrhea than Shigella and Salmonella combined. Anyone can get food poisoning from C. jejuni, but children under five and young adults between the ages of 15 and 29 are more frequently infected.
C. jejuni is carried by healthy cattle, chickens, birds, and flies. It is not carried by healthy people in the United States or Europe. The bacteria is also found ponds and stream water. The ingestion of only a few hundred C. jejuni bacteria can make a person sick.
Symptoms of food poisoning begin two to five days after eating food contaminated with C. jejuni. These symptoms include fever, abdominal pain, nausea, headache, muscle pain, and diarrhea. The diarrhea can be watery or sticky and may contain blood. Symptoms last from seven to 10 days, and relapses occur in about one quarter of people who are infected. Dehydration is a common complication. Other complications such as arthritis-like joint pain and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) are rare.

Shigella

Shigella is a common cause of diarrhea in travelers to developing countries. It is associated with contaminated food and water, crowded living conditions, and poor sanitation. The bacterial toxins affect the small intestine.
Symptoms of food poisoning by Shigella appear 36-72 hours after eating contaminated food. These symptoms are slightly different from those associated with most foodborne bacteria. In addition to the familiar watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, chills and fever occur. The diarrhea may be quite severe with cramps progressing to classical dysentery. Up to 40% of children with severe infections show neurological symptoms. These include seizures caused by fever, confusion, headache, lethargy, and a stiff neck that resembles meningitis.
The disease runs its course usually in two to three days but may last longer. Dehydration is a common complication. Most people recover on their own, although they may feel exhausted, but children who are malnourished or have weakened immune systems may die.

Clostridium botulinum (c. botulinum)

C. botulinum, which causes both adult botulism and infant botulism, is unlike any of the other foodborne bacteria. First, C. botulinum is an anaerobic bacterium in that it can only live in the absence of oxygen. Second, the toxins from C. botulinum are neurotoxins. They poison the nervous system, causing paralysis without the vomiting and diarrhea associated with other foodborne illnesses. Third, toxins that cause adult botulism are released when the bacteria grows in an airless environment outside the body. They can be broken down and made harmless by heat. Finally, botulism is much more likely to be fatal even in tiny quantities.
Adult botulism outbreaks are usually associated with home canned food, although occasionally commercially canned or vacuum packed foods are responsible for the disease. C. botulinum grows well in non-acidic, oxygen-free environments. If food is canned at too low heat or for too brief a time, the bacteria is not killed. It reproduces inside the can or jar, releasing its deadly neurotoxin. The toxin can be made harmless by heating the contaminated food to boiling for ten minutes. However, even a very small amount of the C. botulinum toxin can cause serious illness or death.
Symptoms of adult botulism appear about 18-36 hours after the contaminated food is eaten, although there are documented times of onset ranging from four hours to eight days. Initially a person suffering from botulism feels weakness and dizziness followed by double vision. Symptoms progress to difficulty speaking and swallowing. Paralysis moves down the body, and when the respiratory muscles are paralyzed, death results from asphyxiation. People who show any signs of botulism poisoning must receive immediate emergency medical care to increase their chance of survival.
Infant botulism is a form of botulism first recognized in 1976. It differs from food-borne botulism in its causes and symptoms. Infant botulism occurs when a child under the age of one year ingests the spores of C. botulinum. These spores are found in soil, but a more common source of spores is honey.
The C. botulinum spores lodge in the baby's intestinal tract and begin to grow, producing their neurotoxin. Onset of symptoms is gradual. Initially the baby is constipated. This is followed by poor feeding, lethargy, weakness, drooling, and a distinctive wailing cry. Eventually, the baby loses the ability to control its head muscles. From there the paralysis progresses to the rest of the body.

Diagnosis

One important aspect of diagnosing food poisoning is for doctors to determine if a number of people have eaten the same food and show the same symptoms of illness. When this happens, food poisoning is strongly suspected. The diagnosis is confirmed when the suspected bacteria is found in a stool culture or a fecal smear from the person. Other laboratory tests are used to isolate bacteria from a sample of the contaminated food. Botulism is usually diagnosed from its distinctive neurological symptoms, since rapid treatment is essential. Many cases of food poisoning go undiagnosed, since a definite diagnosis is not necessary to effectively treat the symptoms. Because it takes time for symptoms to develop, it is not necessarily the most recent food one has eaten that is the cause of the symptoms.

Treatment

Treatment of food poisoning, except that caused by C. botulinum, focuses on preventing dehydration by replacing fluids and electrolytes lost through vomiting and diarrhea. Electrolytes are salts and minerals that form electrically charges particles (ions) in body fluids. Electrolytes are important because they control body fluid balance and are important for all major body reactions. Pharmacists can recommend effective, pleasant-tasting, electrolytically balanced replacement fluids that are available without a prescription. When more fluids are being lost than can be consumed, dehydration may occur. Dehydration more likely to happen in the very young, the elderly, and people who are taking diuretics. To prevent dehydration, a doctor may give fluids intravenously.
In very serious cases of food poisoning, medications may be given to stop abdominal cramping and vomiting. Anti-diarrheal medications are not usually given. Stopping the diarrhea keeps the toxins in the body longer and may prolong the infection.
People with food poisoning should modify their diet. During period of active vomiting and diarrhea they should not try to eat and should drink only clear liquids frequently but in small quantities. Once active symptoms stop, they should eat bland, soft, easy to digest foods for two to three days. One example is the BRAT diet of bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast, all of which are easy to digest. Milk products, spicy food, alcohol and fresh fruit should be avoided for a few days, although babies should continue to breastfeed. These modifications are often all the treatment that is necessary.
Severe bacterial food poisonings are sometimes treated with antibiotics. Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (Septra, Bactrim), ampicillin (Amcill, Polycill) or ciprofloxacin (Ciloxan, Cipro) are most frequently used.
Botulism is treated in a different way from other bacterial food poisonings. Botulism antitoxin is given to adults, but not infants, if it can be administered within 72 hours after symptoms are first observed. If given later, it provides no benefit.
Both infants and adults require hospitalization, often in the intensive care unit. If the ability to breathe is impaired, patients are put on a mechanical ventilator to assist their breathing and are fed intravenously until the paralysis passes.

Alternative treatment

Alternative practitioners offer the same advice as traditional practitioners concerning diet modification. In addition they recommend taking charcoal tablets, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and citrus seed extract. An electrolyte replacement fluid can be made at home by adding one teaspoon of salt and four teaspoons of sugar to one quart of water. For food poisoning other than botulism, two homeopathic remedies, either Arsenicum album or Nux vomica, are strongly recommended.

Prognosis

Most cases of food poisoning (except botulism) clear up on their own within one week without medical assistance. The ill person may continue feel tired for a few days after active symptoms stop. So long as the ill person does not become dehydrated, there are few complications. Deaths are rare and usually occur in the very young, the very old and people whose immune systems are already weakened.
Complications of Salmonella food poisoning include arthritis-like symptoms that occur three to four weeks after infection. Although deaths from Salmonella are rare, they do occur. Most deaths caused by Salmonella food poisoning have occurred in elderly people in nursing homes.
Adults usually recover without medical intervention, but many children need to be hospitalized as the result of E. coli food poisoning. E. coli toxins may be absorbed into the blood stream where they destroy red blood cells and platelets. Platelets are important in blood clotting. About 5% of victims develop hemolytic-uremic syndrome which results in sudden kidney failure and makes dialysis necessary. (Dialysis is a medical procedure used to filter the body's waste product when the kidneys have failed).
Botulism is the deadliest of the bacterial foodborne illnesses. With prompt medical care, the death rate is less than 10%.

Prevention

Food poisoning is almost entirely preventable by practicing good sanitation and good food handling techniques. These include:
  • keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold
  • cook meat to the recommended internal temperature, use a meat thermometer to check and cook eggs until they are no longer runny
  • refrigerate leftovers promptly, do not let food stand at room temperature
  • avoid contaminating surfaces and other foods with the juices of uncooked meats
  • wash fruits and vegetables before using
  • purchase pasteurized dairy products and fruit juices
  • throw away bulging or leaking cans or any food that smells spoiled
  • wash hands well before and during food preparation and after using the bathroom
  • sanitize food preparation surfaces regularly

Resources

Other

U. S. Food and Drug Administration. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Bad Bug Book. http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov.

food

 [fo̳d]
a nourishing substance that is eaten or otherwise taken into the body to sustain life, provide energy, or promote growth.
accessory f's foods high in calories and low in nutritive value, often used to increase palatability of foods with higher nutritive value, for example, gravy that is added to mashed potatoes.
functional f's foods and food supplements marketed for presumed health benefits, such as vitamin supplements and certain herbs; called also nutraceuticals.
food poisoning any of a group of acute illnesses due to ingestion of contaminated food. It may result from allergy; toxemia from foods, such as those inherently poisonous or those contaminated by poisons; or foods containing poisons formed by bacteria or foodborne infections. Food poisoning usually causes inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (gastroenteritis); this may occur suddenly, soon after the poisonous food has been eaten. The symptoms are acute, and include tenderness; pain or cramps in the abdomen; nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea; weakness; and dizziness.

The Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that the most commonly recognized foodborne infections are those caused by the bacteria Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Some caliciviruses, especially the Norwalk virus, are also common causes of food poisoning. There are more than 250 known foodborne diseases.
Bacterial Food Poisoning.

Bacterial food poisoning may be from any of a number of different microorganisms, and includes (among other types) botulism, campylobacteriosis, Escherichia coli infection, salmonellosis, and shigellosis.

Campylobacteriosis (Campylobacter infection) is the most common foodborne illness. Contaminated or undercooked poultry or meat, unpasteurized (raw) milk, and contaminated water may cause the disease, even though this organism is commonly found in the intestinal tracts of humans and other animals without causing symptoms of illness. Symptoms of campylobacteriosis usually occur within two to ten days of ingesting the bacteria and include mild to severe diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Children, the elderly, and immunocompromised persons are particularly at risk. The bacteria is now recognized as a major contributing factor in the development of guillain-barré syndrome.

Salmonellosis (poisoning with Salmonella) is the second most common type of food poisoning. The source is usually a poultry product. Salmonella species can produce three types of illnesses: typhoid fever, gastroenteritis, and septicemia. The onset of gastroenteritis is usually 12 to 24 hours after ingestion of the contaminated food, with recovery taking from a few days to months, depending on the severity of the incident. The pathologic activity appears to be directly related to local bacterial action within the intestinal lumen and wall rather than from a toxin.

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of many strains of E. coli; although most strains are harmless and live in the intestines of humans and other animals, this strain produces a powerful toxin and can cause severe illness. It is most frequently associated with ingestion of undercooked ground beef. Other sources of infection include contaminated sprouts, lettuce, salami, unpasteurized (raw) milk, and juice. Swimming in or drinking water contaminated with sewage can also cause infection. The most common symptoms are abdominal cramps and bloody diarrhea. It is also possible to experience nonbloody diarrhea or no symptoms. Usually there is little or no fever, and the illness may resolve in five to ten days. hemolytic uremic syndrome occurs in 2 to 7 per cent of patients.

Norwalk virus is another cause of food poisoning, usually associated with gastroenteritis. Symptoms are often mild, consisting of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Headache and low-grade fever may occur. The fecal-oral route via contaminated water or food is the usual method of transmission. Shellfish and salad ingredients are the foods most often implicated. Norwalk viruses are responsible for about one third of the cases of viral gastroenteritis in persons over the age of two years.
Other Poisonous Plants, Berries, and Shellfish. There are a number of poisonous berries and over 80 kinds of poisonous mushrooms. Children are frequently tempted by poisonous holly berries or the berries that grow on privet (the shrub often used for hedges). Adults often place their faith in misinformation about differences between poisonous and edible mushrooms. Although it is possible to learn to identify poisonous mushrooms and berries, it is much wiser to play safe. Children should be taught not to eat things they find in the woods or fields.

Mushroom poisoning can produce seizures, severe abdominal pain, intense thirst, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dimness of vision, and symptoms resembling those of alcoholic intoxication. Symptoms appear six to 15 hours after eating. Later, because of toxic injury to the liver and kidney, the person exhibits signs of hepatic and renal failure.

Mussels and clams may grow in beds contaminated by the typhoid bacillus (Salmonella typhi) or other pathogens. In addition, mussels, clams, and certain other shellfish are dangerous during warm seasons of the year, particularly in the Pacific Ocean; they become poisonous as a result of feeding on microorganisms that appear in the ocean in warm weather. Paralytic shellfish poisoning is a condition characterized by paralysis of the respiratory tract. The symptoms vary; there may be trembling about the lips or loss of power in the muscles of the neck. Symptoms develop quickly, within five to 30 minutes after eating.

Botulism is the most dangerous, but fortunately the rarest, type of food poisoning. Botulism-causing Clostridium botulinum bacteria and their spores are often present in the environment. The spores can be found on the surfaces of fruits and vegetables, as well as in seafood. Home-canned, low-acidic foods were once a common source for this type of poisoning. The bacteria and spores themselves are harmless; the dangerous substance is the botulinum toxin produced by the bacteria when they grow. Botulism results in a descending pattern of weakness and paralysis. When it is suspected, serum, feces, and any remaining food should be tested for botulinum toxin; food and fecal samples can also be cultured for Clostridium botulinum. In infant botulism, the toxin is produced when C. botulinum spores germinate in the intestines. Most cases in infants are caused by inhalation of airborne spores, but infants under one year old should not be given honey, which can contain C. botulinum spores.
Treatment. For most bacterial food poisoning, treatment is largely supportive and consists of rest, nothing by mouth until vomiting stops, medication for the diarrhea, and intravenous replacement of fluids and electrolytes as needed. While most bacterial poisonings are self-limiting, botulism must be treated promptly with antitoxin and respiratory support; the greatest threat to life is respiratory failure. A large proportion of persons with botulism whose cases are misdiagnosed or treated improperly have a fatal outcome.

In general, antibiotics are not effective in treating bacterial food poisoning. However, care will be individualized to the patient dependent upon the organism causing the infection and the condition of the patient. Prevention of food poisoning by proper handwashing techniques and appropriate food handling should be emphasized.

In the United States, the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition of the Food and Drug Administration has published the Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook, a valuable source for basic facts on this subject.

food poi·son·ing

poisoning in which the active agent is contained in ingested food.

food poisoning

n.
1. An acute, often severe gastrointestinal disorder characterized by vomiting and diarrhea and caused by eating food contaminated with bacteria such as salmonella, viruses such as norovirus, or bacterial toxins, as in botulism.
2. Poisoning caused by eating food that contains natural toxins, as certain mushrooms, or that is contaminated with chemical toxins such as pesticides.

food poisoning

any of a large group of toxic processes that result from the ingestion of a food contaminated by toxic substances or by bacteria that contain toxins. Kinds of food poisoning include ciguatera poisoning, Minamata disease, mushroom poisoning, Salmonella gastroenteritis, and shellfish poisoning. See also botulism, ergot alkaloid, phalloidine, toadstool poisoning.
A popular term for clinical intoxication by food contaminated with various pathogens, usually understood to mean bacteria
Aetiology Milk & dairy products, mayonnaise, eggs, parsley, exposure to turtles
Management Fluids, antipyretics
Precautions Thorough handwashing after patient care

food poisoning

Public health A popular term for clinical intoxication by food contaminated with various pathogens, usually understood to mean bacteria Etiology Milk & dairy products, mayonnaise, eggs, parsley, exposure to turtles Clinical Diarrhea, N&V, chills, ↑ temperature, headache, colic, abdominal pain, confusion, seizures Management Fluids, antipyretics Precautions Religious handwashing after Pt care. Cf Food allergy, Food intolerance.

food poi·son·ing

(fūd poy'zŏn-ing)
Illness related to the ingestion of a foodstuff tainted by pathogens of any type.

food poisoning

A group of intestinal disorders caused either by living organisms present in food or by contamination of food by the toxins of organisms which have incubated outside the body, as from septic skin infection in food handlers. The commonest bacterial contamination of food is by Salmonella typhimurium , which may be found in meats and eggs. Food handled by the unconcerned is often contaminated by human faeces. Toxins in food, such as staphylococcal toxin from finger infections such as boils, cause symptoms within hours. Organisms in food cause symptoms within 2 or 3 three days. The effects are nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fever, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. Food poisoning can also be caused by poisonous fungi, such as Amanita phalloides , or berries eaten in error.

food poisoning

an ACUTE (2) disorder of the gut caused by food contaminated with bacteria or their toxins (e.g. BOTULISM) or by some chemical, which occurs within 24 hours of food ingestion.

food poi·son·ing

(fūd poy'zŏn-ing)
Poisoning in which the active agent is contained in ingested food.

food

materials taken into the body by mouth which provide nourishment in the form of energy or in the building of tissues. Common usage is to use the term in relation to humans and dogs and cats and to use feed for the other animals but the rule is not absolute. See also diet, ration, feed.

food additive
nonfood materials added to a diet to enhance or limit a body function, e.g. growth, to control infection or to physically alter the food to facilitate handling or processing or preserving. See food additive.
food allergy
an immune-mediated reaction to a food or food additive; clinical signs are most commonly demonstrated in the alimentary tract or skin but may affect any system and in any hypersensitivity mode. Commonly diagnosed in dogs, occasionally in horses, but rarely in the other species. Called food hypersensitivity. See also dermatitis, pruritus, angioedema, urticaria, gastroenteritis.
food anaphylaxis
an acute allergic response to a food or food additive, with systemic signs typical of anaphylaxis in the species concerned. See also systemic anaphylaxis.
food animals
animals used in the production of food for humans. Includes, in common usage, the species and breeds that also supply fiber and hides for human use. Use of this term has spawned a rash of new knowledge disciplines such as food animal medicine, food animal ophthalmology, and new service areas such as food animal practice.
food borne disease
a disease with food as the source of infection. An example is Eschericia coli 0157:H7 infection of humans via hamburger meat.
food bumps
food chain
the path taken by a raw food product from the farm or other producing unit to the table of the consumer. Includes sale, transport, storage, processing, packaging and retail sale and all of the points of risk at which the food may become contaminated or spoiled or corrupted in some way.
food contaminants
include bacteria, parasites and toxic residues.
food conversion ratio
efficiency in converting the food into energy or tissue; a characteristic of the food relating largely to digestibility.
food exchanges
foods of approximately equivalent levels of energy, proteins, fats and carbohydrates, which may be exchanged or substituted in a diet without significant alteration to its nutritional balance.
generic food
see generic pet food.
food hypersensitivity
see food allergy (above).
food idiosyncrasy
an adverse reaction to ingested food by an individual, not mediated by immune mechanisms; may be due to an enzyme defect.
food intake
amount of food taken in a unit of time, usually daily.
food intolerance
an abnormal physiologic response to food which is not immune-mediated.
food legislation
the content, purity and public health connotations of animal foods are usually controlled by local legislation.
manufactured food
those commercially formulated and prepared; includes stock feeds, particularly supplements and pellets, canned and dry dog and cat foods.
food marker
inert material included in food to measure speed of passage of food through alimentary tract.
pet food
usually refers to commercially prepared food such as canned, semimoist, dry, kibbled, biscuits, loaves, and butcher's scraps in various forms provided for dogs and cats.
plant-based food
usual in livestock, but in carnivores it refers to mixed-source diets with a high plant-origin carbohydrate content; a common formula in commercially prepared pet foods.
food poisoning
a group of acute illnesses due to ingestion of a specific toxin in the food. Usually causes gastroenteritis and vomiting and diarrhea.
food refusal syndrome
observed mostly in pigs; refusal to eat a particular feed or meal but willing to eat other feeds. See also food refusal factor, deoxynivalenol, vomitoxin.
food rewards
the many types of food items owners and trainers use to reward their dogs or cats for behavior that pleases them; may be a part of training and behavior modification programs, but is often done simply as a result of the owner's affection for the pet.
food specific dynamic action
see specific dynamic action.
food toxicity
may be the result of toxins or microorganisms contaminating the food or excessive levels of a nutrient, such as vitamin A.

poisoning

the morbid condition produced by a poison. The poison may be swallowed, inhaled (as in carbon monoxide poisoning), injected by a stinging insect as in a bee sting, or spilled or otherwise brought into contact with the skin.

blood poisoning
septicemia.
food poisoning
a group of acute illnesses due to ingestion of contaminated food. See also food poisoning.

Patient discussion about food poisoning

Q. How Do You Treat Food Poisoning? I've been suffering from food poisoning for the last two days, is there a way to treat it? Is there specific food I should avoid?

A. The most important treatment for food poisoning is drinking water. The body loses many fluids and the danger is dehydration. Our body can last longer without food than it can without water, and therefore it is ok to avoid eating as much as you used to for a short period of time until your digestive system can recover. However it is very dangerous to avoid drinking, despite the possible vomiting.At any sign of dehydration (fatigue, dizziness) you should seek medical care. In case your symptoms go on loger than expected you should visit your doctor, because antibiotic treatment may help as well.

Q. What are the Symptoms of Food Poisoning? My kid started vomiting non-stop tonight, but has doesn't have a fever. We ate lunch at this new restaurant, could this be related? What are the symptoms of food poisoning?

A. Symptoms that occur within 1–6 hours after eating the food, suggest that it is caused by a bacterial toxin or a chemical in the food. During this short "incubation period", microbes pass through the stomach into the intestine, attach to the intestinal walls, and begin to multiply there. Some types of microbes stay in the intestine, some produce a toxin that is absorbed into the bloodstream, and some can directly invade the deeper body tissues. The symptoms produced depend on the type of microbe, but are most commonly vomiting, nausea, fever and stomach aches.

Q. How can I tell if I have food poisoning? I've been having diarrhea and been vomiting for 2 days now. How can I tell if it's food poisoning or anything else?

A. when i got food poisioned i was pooping and throwing up at the same time,it lasted for about 10 hours,

More discussions about food poisoning
References in periodicals archive ?
To best protect the public's health, CDC -- not CSPI -- should be the clearinghouse for information on food poisoning outbreaks," said DeWaal.
A spokesman for the Eastern Board also made the point that there had been a sharp increase in food poisoning in the home.
The news follows our exclusive story in September that a government study was set to confirm the true level of food poisoning as dramatically higher than reported.
Last April, hundreds of Al-Azhar students suffered food poisoning in two separate incidents after eating meals prepared by the university.
Of the 1,925 affected students who were treated for food poisoning in hospitals and health centres starting last Friday, 1,553 were outpatients, 347 were recently discharged, and 66 others remained confined, the health department said.
Phil Shoemack, chief medical officer of health, said the reports of food poisoning were "unusual" since it appears to be related to consuming packaged lettuces and carrots.
However, the hospital reports said that tests and medical examinations have found no signs of food poisoning.
com announces the release of a free and easy to use food poisoning reporting system.
Myth - food poisoning is always caused by the last meal you ate.
The FSA says this could lead to a potentially dangerous form of food poisoning.
But, according to the Food Standards Agency, our enthusiasm for al fresco dining leads to an annual spike in the number of cases of food poisoning.