materials taken into the body by mouth which provide nourishment in the form of energy or in the building of tissues. Common usage is to use the term in relation to humans and dogs and cats and to use feed for the other animals but the rule is not absolute. See also diet
nonfood materials added to a diet to enhance or limit a body function, e.g. growth, to control infection or to physically alter the food to facilitate handling or processing or preserving. See food additive
an immune-mediated reaction to a food or food additive; clinical signs are most commonly demonstrated in the alimentary tract or skin but may affect any system and in any hypersensitivity mode. Commonly diagnosed in dogs, occasionally in horses, but rarely in the other species. Called food hypersensitivity. See also dermatitis
an acute allergic response to a food or food additive, with systemic signs typical of anaphylaxis in the species concerned. See also systemic anaphylaxis.
animals used in the production of food for humans. Includes, in common usage, the species and breeds that also supply fiber and hides for human use. Use of this term has spawned a rash of new knowledge disciplines such as food animal medicine, food animal ophthalmology, and new service areas such as food animal practice.
food borne disease
a disease with food as the source of infection. An example is Eschericia coli 0157:H7 infection of humans via hamburger meat.
the path taken by a raw food product from the farm or other producing unit to the table of the consumer. Includes sale, transport, storage, processing, packaging and retail sale and all of the points of risk at which the food may become contaminated or spoiled or corrupted in some way.
include bacteria, parasites and toxic residues.
food conversion ratio
efficiency in converting the food into energy or tissue; a characteristic of the food relating largely to digestibility.
foods of approximately equivalent levels of energy, proteins, fats and carbohydrates, which may be exchanged or substituted in a diet without significant alteration to its nutritional balance.
see food allergy (above).
an adverse reaction to ingested food by an individual, not mediated by immune mechanisms; may be due to an enzyme defect.
amount of food taken in a unit of time, usually daily.
an abnormal physiologic response to food which is not immune-mediated.
the content, purity and public health connotations of animal foods are usually controlled by local legislation.
those commercially formulated and prepared; includes stock feeds, particularly supplements and pellets, canned and dry dog and cat foods.
inert material included in food to measure speed of passage of food through alimentary tract.
usually refers to commercially prepared food such as canned, semimoist, dry, kibbled, biscuits, loaves, and butcher's scraps in various forms provided for dogs and cats.
usual in livestock, but in carnivores it refers to mixed-source diets with a high plant-origin carbohydrate content; a common formula in commercially prepared pet foods.
a group of acute illnesses due to ingestion of a specific toxin in the food. Usually causes gastroenteritis and vomiting and diarrhea.
the many types of food items owners and trainers use to reward their dogs or cats for behavior that pleases them; may be a part of training and behavior modification programs, but is often done simply as a result of the owner's affection for the pet.
food specific dynamic action food toxicity
may be the result of toxins or microorganisms contaminating the food or excessive levels of a nutrient, such as vitamin A.
1. a state of altered reactivity in which the body reacts with an exaggerated immune response to a foreign agent; allergy
is a synonym for hypersensitivity. anaphylaxis
is a form of hypersensitivity.
There are four basic types of hypersensitivity reactions: Type I
(called also immediate hypersensitivity) involves cell-fixed antibody, mainly IgE attached to mast cells or basophils. Antigen binding causes the cell to release vasoactive factors. The basis for anaphylaxis and atopy. Type II
causes cell destruction (cytotoxicity) by the action of immunoglobulin with complement or cytotoxic cells. Seen in red blood cell transfusion reactions and in alloimmune hemolytic anemia. See also antibody
-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Type III
(called also immune-complex or subacute hypersensitivity) causes tissue damage and inflammation by the deposition of antigen-antibody complexes that activate complement and attract polymorphonuclear cells. Type IV
(called also delayed hypersensitivity) involves sensitized T lymphocytes that react with cell bound or associated antigen and release lymphokines, causing mononuclear cell accumulation, tissue damage and inflammation, typically manifesting at least 24 hours after exposure to the antigen.
2. a state of increased responsivity to physical stimuli.
variant of polyarteritis nodosa; a disease of small blood vessels in humans; called also leukocytoclastic vasculitis.
types I, II and III hypersensitivity reactions. Called also immediate hypersensitivity.
immune responses to bacteria or bacterial products may contribute to the clinical features of some diseases, e.g. the anemia associated with salmonellosis, arthritis in erysipelas of pigs, intestinal lesions in Johne's disease, or be the principal cause as in staphylococcal hypersensitivity dermatitis in dogs.
a type IV reaction produced by contact of the skin with a low-molecular-weight chemical substance having the properties of a hapten in a sensitized individual; it includes allergic
cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity
a delayed inflammatory response characterized by large numbers of basophils.
type II hypersensitivity.
type IV reaction. A slowly developing cell-mediated immune response in which T helper 1 lymphocytes respond to specific antigen by releasing cytokines, some of which activate macrophages, as occurs in tuberculin reaction, graft rejection, some autoimmune diseases, etc.
may be either an immediate (antibody mediated) or delayed type (T lymphocyte mediated) reaction. See also drug
flea bite hypersensitivity
hypersensitivity reaction to various dietary constituents has been the suspected cause of allergic dermatitis in most species, but conclusive evidence is often lacking. It may also result in diarrhea.
may contribute to the clinical features of cutaneous fungal infections, particularly kerion
formation. It is also the basis for skin testing for systemic mycoses, e.g. histoplasmin and coccidioidin.
occurs, e.g. the self-cure phenomenon, and the allergic response of a sensitized animal to an invasion, e.g. of lungs, causes massive pulmonary edema.
antibody-mediated hypersensitivity, i.e. types I, II and III, characterized by a response that appears within minutes to hours, resulting either from a release of histamine and other mediators of hypersensitivity from IgE-sensitized mast cells, causing increased vascular permeability, edema and smooth muscle contraction (type I), from antibody-mediated lysis of red blood cells (type II), or from immune complex mediated pathology (type III).
immune complex hypersensitivity
type III hypersensitivity (above).
bovine pulmonary emphysema-edema.
hypersensitivity pneumonitis staphylococcal hypersensitivity
see bacterial hypersensitivity (above).
a theory that certain levels of allergens may be tolerated by some sensitized individuals without manifestations of disease, but a slight increase in the level precipitates clinical signs.
tuberculin type hypersensitivity
the classical T lymphocyte cell-mediated hypersensitivity associated with mycobacterium infection or immunization with antigens containing Freund's adjuvant.
Patient discussion about food hypersensitivity
Q. Can you define celiac as a food allergy? and if you can- how come you can't treat it with alternative medicine- like you do for other types of food allergies???
A. No, celiac is not defined as a food allergy, because the mechanism of injury to the bowel mucose after exposure to gluten containing products is much more severe than the regular allergic reaction. The damage caused to the bowel is by severe inflammation and destruction of the bowel "villi", and in a regular food allergy the only problem caused is either mal-digestion or other allergic manifestations such as a rash (aside from actual anaphylaxis).
Q. How long does it take for an allergy to occur after eating a food? Ok, I am allergic to peppers, each time I get an allergic reaction it takes longer and longer for the allergy to occur last time it was nearly 10 hours after eating the food this time it was 17 hours after eating the food. Is this even possible? I thought reactions occurred at max 4-6 hours after eating the food
A. i have a LOT of allergies. i am allergic to nuts very bad and i ate a chocolate with a nut in that a didn't notice, 10 seconds after digesting gave me a bad feeling in my throat and a few more seconds later i was violently sick and couldn't breathe very well and needed to call an ambulance 10 seconds later. i think its how bad the allergy, the quicker it starts to take effect.
Q. Is it possible to show external symptoms with a food allergy? The research I've done only mentions irritation of the throat and mouth, wheezing, etc. But is it possible to develop hives and itching on your back, arms, legs, but not have any irritation in your throat, mouth, etc, when you're affected by a food allergy, such as soy?
Also, is it possibly a food allergy if the hives take a long time to go away, maybe a day or two?
A. Yes, it is possible. This exact same thing happens to me when I eat avocado products.More discussions about food hypersensitivity
My skin whelps up, turn's red and itches like nothing else...
I hope that this helps and good luck with your allergies!