This review focuses at highlighting the importance of Food Exchange List in cultural perspective, as an effective dietary tool to help individuals' manage their dietary modifications in relation to non communicable diseases whilst specifying measures that can help improve the quality of Food Exchange Lists for combating various non communicable diseases and addressing adherence related issues to specialized diets.
Out of the 837 papers accessed 57 were identified as relevant to the Food Exchange List, out of which 39 papers were focused to the concept and development of the Food Exchange List.
Meal planning food exchange list formulated in 19509 is such a tool which allows the interchanging of foods within a particular food group so as to provide flexibility to the consumer, ensuring better adherence to the dietary regime in relation to the management of disease.
16 This Mediterranean food exchange list is based on two distinct aspects, that is, a high intake of monounsaturated fats about 30% to 40 % of the total energy intake17 and vegetables along with a moderate intake of protein.
Thus, it may be said that both a low Fat Portion exchange system of 1989 and a low fat Mediterranean food exchange list (2014) were equally successful and ended up with the consensus that it is a useful dietary tool for improvement of diet quality and could be used for achieving positive outcomes for intervention.
The food exchange list is being used as a means of providing medical nutritional therapy to diabetics20 since 1950 and its fifth revision came with a new title of Choose Your Foods: Exchange List for Diabetes.
Besides the ADA Food Exchange List10 a 10 g protein counter (EP-10) was also developed to expedite the estimation of dietary protein for nutritional assessment and recommendation and it was seen that both EP-10 and ADA-7g are valid clinical tools for protein intake21 A Food Exchange List was also fashioned for renal patients living South Africa24 and for those belonging to Southeast Asian origin.
The effectiveness of low sodium diet was determined using a diet planned through food exchange list for hypertensive patients and it was found that low sodium diet prepared using exchange list was more effective than the one prepared using food composition tables.
Use of the standard Food Exchange list for the treatment and management of diabetes showed limitation as it was cultural insensitivity and modification to the standard food exchange list was done by addition of local foods so that it could be used in Central America.
Improved Quality of Food Exchange List and Adherence to Specific Diets: Dietary Tools that are reassessed and modified to cater new demands have proved to be more effective in relevance to NCD management.
Diets planned from updated and locally relevant FELs have the benefit of greater acceptance with better chance of being implemented with success, thus aiding elimination of adherence related issues such as limited food items in the food exchange list, fewer options and unrealistic portion sizes.
The text includes clinical applications, cultural dietary considerations, chapter review questions with an answer key, nutritional summary charts, food exchange lists
for diabetes, measurement conversion tables, and a glossary.