In addition, the same results are obtained for the cover across the different categories of lichen, in particular among the foliose
lichen and the crustose lichen, where the correlation between the two categories is negative, and very highly significant, r always tending to be -1 ***.
that is, the spiny leaves of the long shoots, the foliose
leaves of the short shoots, and the cataphylls.
Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: 24 specimens, TPGR, from foliose
lichens on Acacia trees, 17 deposited at SMLA (accession numbers 9340-9346, 9349) and 7 at NMSA (accession number 9347).
lichen sample yielded four species: Macrobiotus hibiscus, Macrobiotus richtersi, Minibiotus furcatus, and Minibiotus inter-medius (Plate, 1888).
The growth form of each lichen was determined: foliose
(leaf-like), crustose (crust-like), fruticose (shrub-like) or squamulose (scale-like).
Lichens may be foliose
(leafy); fruticose (shrublike or stalked); or crustose (crust-forming).
Subtidal specimens were also abundant and generally larger than intertidal specimens, and typically occupied rock fissures or holdfasts of foliose
red algae such as Gymnogongrus linearis.
other shelter-providing urchins, substrate rugosity, or foliose
algae, is available (Tegner and Dayton, 1981).
5 mm in diameter, robust herbaceous stems, peeled coarse exterior sheathing of herbaceous stems, vine tendrils, moss, and foliose
Thirty-four lichens are of the crustose growth form, 24 are foliose
and 2 are fruticose.
At Tanner Bank in 2002, white abalone were generally found in association with two species of brown algae (Laminaria farlowii and Agarum fimbriatum [88% of white abalone sightings included one or both species]), a foliose
red alga (Rhodymenia spp.
leaves, those in Pseudo-Gunnera are not and appear to