tortuosa) usually grow hanging from the dead branches of conifers that are already covered with foliose
species that are light in color.
22 Fruticose, foliose
, and crustose lichens in the Arctic tundra, from eastern Russia, Norway, and Northwest Territories (Canada).
Seawater collected in situ adjacent to the foliose
red alga Delisea pulchra contained a low concentration of dissolved histamine less than 5 nM and induced larval settlement of the sea urchin Holopneustes purpuraseens.
At the familial level, the Andes show a particularly good representation of groups with foliose
and fruticose species, like Parmeliaceae (incl.
1984) has shown a competitive hierarchy of Macrocystis [greater than] Pterygophora [greater than] Laminaria and the other understory algae including red foliose
and coralline algae, with an inverse hierarchy of susceptibility to wave stress.
The recovery process also included a dramatic increase in the coverage and biomass of foliose
algae and an associated increase in biodiversity of floral and faunal assemblages.
In comparison to the Galapagos Archipelago, Cocos Island harbors a more typical tropical bryoflora with foliose
, crustose, and small fruticose lichens on smaller branches were not removed.
green algae (Ulva pertusa and Enteromorpha intestinales) than on siphonous green algae (Codium spp.
The unusual value for web 21 resulted from an unusually high number of chains involving a highly diverse group of foliose
algae, all of which directly or indirected affected a small number of target species, generating many pathways for relatively few indirect effects.
CCA Species Source Morphology Pneophyllum coronatum On plastic plates in Encrusting (Rosanoff) Penrose GACL hatchery in Chamberlain Hydrolithon rupestris On plastic plates in Encrusting (Foslie) Penrose GACL hatchery Phymatolithon repandum On stones from shallow Encrusting to warty (Foslie) Wilks and subtidal at Cable Woelkerling Bay (173[degrees]24'E, 41[degrees]11'S) Lithophyllum On stipes of sublittoral Foliose
carpophylli fringe Carpophyllum (Heydrich) maschalocarpum Heydrich (Phaeophyceae) on shore by GACL Mesophyllium On stable boulders in Warty to fruticose printzianum sublittoral fringe on Woelkerling and shore by GACL Harvey Crust CCA Species Thickness Likely Grazers Pneophyllum coronatum -0.
In one case, the specimens were attached by hand to the underside or side of boulders, 30 x 60 cm on average, covered in the upper surface by calcareous or foliose
algae, but with smooth undersides.