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In a typical child 20 mL/kg of normal saline is given intravenously (or intraosseously) over 30 min. The volume infused into an adult is usually 250–1000 mL. The lower volume is used if there are concerns that the patient may develop pulmonary edema. The patient's blood pressure, heart rate and rhythm, oxygenation, and respirations are closely monitored during and after the infusion for evidence of a positive response, e.g., a mean arterial pressure that rises above 70 mm Hg, or deterioration, e.g., increasing dyspnea, ventricular ectopy, or hypoxia. Patients who respond favorably to a fluid challenge are typically placed on a maintenance infusion of fluids to sustain them hemodynamically.