Comparing across sexual behaviors and courtships, superovulated animals conducted more mountings, mounting attempts, head bumping, flehmen
, sniffing, following and licking, compared with the synchronized group (Figure 1), while the synchronized group participated more in assisted head resting.
Deer, pronghorn, sheep, bison, goats, horses, and several other wild and domestic ungulates exhibit what is known as "lip curl," or flehmen.
During flehmen, the Jacobson's organ, a small sensory mass between the brain and the nasal passages, gathers airborne material onto its sensitive tissue and subjects it to analysis by brain memory banks or instinctive data.
The structure and function of the Jacobson's organ in higher animals is similar, because the flehmen process exposes the Jacobson's organ to elements in the immediate environment.