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Also to our knowledge, no cases of tick-borne flavivirus infection in humans have been reported in Spain, although 1 case of tick-borne encephalitis in a person from southwestern France was considered to have been caused by an SSEV subtype virus (3,7).
Only clinical testing under well controlled conditions can determine efficacy and safety on entity including Ampligen(R) in Flavivirus infections.
To further confirm flavivirus as the causative agent of duck hemorrhagic ovaritis, we used PCR to test the isolate and clinical samples with forward primer Usu5454f (5'-ATGGATGAAGCYCATTTCAC-3') (5) and a newly designed reverse primer 5861R (5'-CCAAAGTTGGCYCCCATCTC-3').
However, a heminested RT-PCR specific for a broad range of flaviviruses (12) showed positive results for all samples (Table), indicating that a non-WNV flavivirus was present in samples from different tissues of diseased birds.
The samples were screened for the presence of flavivirus nucleic acid by reverse transcription PCR, using universal flavivirus primers MAMD (6) and CFD2 (6,7) for amplification of a partial nonstructural protein (NS) 5 sequence.
Out of 580 wild-caught mosquitoes from 124 pools tested for virus using antigen capture ELISA and an insect-bioassay (inoculation into Toxorhynchites splendens larvae and identification by IFA using Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus-specific monoclonal antibody), four flavivirus isolations were made, of which 2 (50%) were identified as JE virus, one each from Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx.
The first structure of a flavivirus has been determined by using a combination of cryoelectron microscopy and fitting of the known structure of glycoprotein E into the electron density map.
Several other laboratories may have detected lineage 2 only by broad-range flavivirus assays, as suggested by the observed correlation between non-WNV flavivirus detection and lineage 2 results.
Acambis is proud to assist in the rapid and accurate diagnosis of West Nile and other flavivirus diseases by donating our ChimeriVax vaccine candidates for use by public health departments.
Flavivirus infection in pregnancy has been associated with spontaneous abortion and neonatal infection, but has not been known to cause birth defects.
The findings provide the first detailed view of a flavivirus and offer structural information that can be used to unravel the processes that lead to viral infection.