prosthesis

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prosthesis

 [pros-the´sis] (pl. prosthe´ses) (Gr.)
an artificial substitute for a missing part, such as an eye, limb, or tooth, used for functional or cosmetic reasons, or both.
Artificial Limb. Advances in the field of surgical amputation and the art of designing artificial limbs have made it possible for persons who have lost a limb to be equipped with a prosthesis that functions so efficiently, and so closely resembles the original in appearance, that they can resume normal activities with the disability passing almost unnoticed.
Materials Used in the Prosthesis. A variety of materials can be used for the manufacture of artificial limbs. Wood, especially willow, is the most popular because it is comparatively light and resilient, and is easily shaped. Aluminum or an aluminum alloy is used when lightness is particularly desirable, such as in a limb for an aged person. Plastic limbs are also available. Leather and various metals are used for reinforcement and control.
Powering the Limb. Most artificial limbs are powered by the muscles, either those remaining in the residual limb or other available muscles. The muscles of the residual limb often can be considerably strengthened by physical therapy. Muscle power can be reinforced by means of springs, straps, gears, locks, levers, or, in some cases, hydraulic mechanisms.
The Artificial Lower Limb. The most commonly fitted artificial limb is the knee-jointed leg, used by persons whose lower limbs have been amputated above the knee. This prosthesis is powered by the hip and remaining thigh muscles, which kick the leg forward. The key points in such a limb are the socket, where it fits onto the residual limb, the knee, and the ankle. The possibility of walking with a normal gait depends primarily on the successful alignment of the socket joint; the knee usually consists of a joint centered slightly behind that of the natural leg, as this has been found to afford greater stability; sometimes the ankle joint is omitted and flexibility of the ankle achieved by the use of a rubber foot.
The Artificial Upper Limb. The choice of a particular artificial upper limb depends largely on the person's occupation. There are many different types, ranging from the purely functional, which will enable a person to perform heavy work, to the purely cosmetic, which aims only at looking as natural as possible. Those persons whose work requires them to do heavy lifting are often fitted with a “pegarm,” a short limb without an elbow joint, which is easily controlled and has great leverage.
The Artificial Hand. There are many different types of artificial hands. Many artificial upper limbs are so constructed that they can be fitted with a selection of different hands, depending on the type of work to be done. Researchers generally agree that the various types of hooks offer the greatest functional efficiency. These reproduce the most powerful function of natural hands—the pressure between thumb and forefinger. There are also artificial hands that combine a certain amount of utility with cosmetic value, often by means of a cosmetic glove covering a mechanical hand; others are designed simply for appearance, though they may offer some support as well.

Most hooks and hands are mechanically connected to the opposite shoulder and operated by a shrugging motion. However, a procedure known as kineplasty uses the person's own arm and chest muscles to work the device. In this method, selected muscles are tunneled under by surgery and lined by skin. Pegs adapted to the tunnels can then be made to move an artificial hand mechanism. Kineplasty is used when skill rather than strength is desired.
Protecting the Residual Limb (Stump). In a person with an artificial limb, there is always a danger of irritation or infection. A sock is worn to cover the residual limb, and this should be washed daily; the residual limb itself should also be washed regularly and carefully, particularly between skin folds. When the artificial limb is not being used, the residual limb should be exposed to the air if possible.
Types of lower limb prostheses. A, Below-knee endoskeletal prosthesis. The strength is derived from the inner endoskeleton. B, Below-knee exoskeletal prosthesis. The strength is derived from the outer exoskeleton. C, Above-knee endoskeletal prosthesis. D, Above-knee exoskeletal prosthesis. Exoskeletal (E) and endoskeletal (F) hip disarticulation prostheses. From Myers, 1995.
Angelchik prosthesis a C-shaped silicone device used in the management of reflux esophagitis; it can also be placed around the distal esophagus during a laparotomy. (
Placement of the Angelchik antireflux prosthesis. From Ignatavicius and Workman, 2002.
)
Austin Moore prosthesis a metallic implant used in hip arthroplasty.
Charnley prosthesis an implant for hip arthroplasty consisting of an acetabular cup and a relatively small femoral head component that form a low-friction joint.
penile prosthesis see penile prosthesis.

pros·the·sis

, pl.

pros·the·ses

(pros'thē-sis, -sēz; pros-thē'sis),
Fabricated substitute used to assist a damaged or replace a missing body part; or to augment or stabilize a hypoplastic structure.
[G. an addition]

prosthesis

/pros·the·sis/ (pros-the´sis) pl. prosthe´ses   [Gr.] an artificial substitute for a missing body part, such as an arm, leg, eye, or tooth; used for functional or cosmetic reasons or both.prosthet´ic
penile prosthesis  a semirigid rod or inflatable device implanted in the penis to provide an erection for men with organic impotence.

prosthesis

(prŏs-thē′sĭs)
n. pl. prosthe·ses (-sēz)
1. An artificial device used to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or heart valve.
2. Replacement of a missing body part with such a device.

prosthesis

[prosthē′sis] pl. prostheses
Etymology: Gk, addition
1 an artificial replacement for a missing body part, such as an artificial limb or total joint replacement.
2 a device designed and applied to improve function, such as a hearing aid. See also maxillofacial prosthesis, Starr-Edwards prosthesis. prosthetic, adj.
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Upper extremity prostheses
An artificial body part—e.g., artificial limb, etc.

prosthesis

plural, prostheses Medtalk An artificial body part–eg, pseudobreast, artificial limb, etc. See Bioprosthesis, Heart valve prosthesis, Hemobahn endovascular prosthesis, Neural prosthesis, Seagull wing prosthesis.

pros·the·sis

, pl. prostheses (pros-thē'sis, -sēz)
Fabricated substitute for a diseased or missing part of the body.
[G. an addition]

prosthesis

Any artificial replacement for a part of the body. Prostheses may be functional or purely cosmetic and may be permanently installed internally or worn externally. The range of prosthetic devices is wide-from artificial eyes and legs to heart valves and testicles.

Prosthesis

A synthetic replacement for a missing part of the body, such as a knee or a hip.

prosthesis

; prosthetic manufactured substitute for absent/dysfunctional body part, e.g. artificial limb; dummy toe

prosthesis (präs·thēˑ·sis),

n 1. an artificial device that is used to replace a part of the body that is missing, such as an arm, leg, or joint.
2. an artificial device used to improve the function of a part of the body, such as a hearing aid.
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Prosthesis.

pros·the·sis

, pl. prostheses (pros-thē'sis, -sēz)
Fabricated substitute used to assist a damaged or replace a missing body part.
[G. an addition]

prosthesis (prosthē´sis),

n the replacement of an absent part of the body by an artificial part.
prosthesis, cleft palate,
n a restoration to correct congenital or acquired defects in the palate and related structures if they are involved.
prosthesis, complete denture,
prosthesis, cranial,
n an artificial material (alloplast) used to replace a portion of the skull.
prosthesis, definitive,
n a permanent type that serves as a substitute for missing tissue.
prosthesis, dental,
n a type that serves as an artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or associated structures.
prosthesis, expansion,
n a type used to expand the lateral segment of the maxilla in unilateral or bilateral cleft of the soft and hard palates and alveolar processes.
prosthesis, feeding,
n a type worn by a young infant with a cleft palate to increase sucking power and to eliminate the escape of food through the nose.
prosthesis, fixed expansion,
n a type that cannot be readily removed and stays in position for the required length of treatment.
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Dental prosthesis.
prosthesis, hybrid,
n a fixed denture that uses a combination of a metal framework and a complete denture. Also called a
high-water prosthesis.
prosthesis, implant,
prosthesis, partial denture,
prosthesis, pediatric speech aid,
n a type temporarily used to replace lost tissue in the palate of a child to remedy inarticulate speech. The device may be used to close an opening caused by a developmental defect or surgery.
prosthesis, periodontal,
n a type that is used as a therapeutic adjunct in the treatment of periodontal disease.
prosthesis, postsurgical,
n a type that serves as a replacement for a missing part or parts after surgical intervention.
prosthesis, removable expansion,
n a type that can be removed from the oral cavity and replaced when indicated.
prosthesis, surgical,
n a type that is used to assist in surgical procedures and placed at the time of surgery.
prosthesis, temporary,
n a fixed or removable restoration for which a more permanent appliance is planned within a short period.

prosthesis

pl. prostheses [Gr.]
1. the replacement of an absent part by an artifical substitute.
2. an artificial substitute for a missing part, such as an eye, leg or tooth, used for functional or cosmetic reasons, or both.

femoral prosthesis
see total hip replacement.
joint prosthesis
the principal example in veterinary surgery is total hip replacement.
ocular prosthesis
is used infrequently in animals. It may be fitted in the orbit after enucleation (intraorbital), within the sclera after evisceration of the defective globe (intrascleral), or over the surface of a deformed globe (extrascleral).
skeletal prosthesis
not much used in animals, largely because of the great variability in the sizes needed and the small volume required. Human prostheses have been adapted for use in primates.
urethral prosthesis
metal or synthetic conduits may be implanted in the treatment of urethral stricture and obstruction in male cats.
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