First-order change works within the broad parameters of the existing paradigm, as established authorities fine-tune their policy instruments to address certain policy anomalies.
As analysed below, the initital round of change involved only the limited adaptations to the city's established growth machine of the kind associated with Hall's first-order change.
In relation to Hall's concept of policy learning, the LEDC's renovation of London's growth machine paradigm conforms well to first-order change.
Historically, behavioral and related approaches to psychotherapy have embraced what may be regarded as first-order change strategies in dealing with clinical problems in which private experiences such as unwanted thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, impulses, and memories are thought to be centrally involved (Hayes, 1987, 1994).
In contrast to first-order change strategies, recent years have seen the emergence of a "new wave" of cognitive and behavior therapies that place greater emphasis upon second-order change (Hayes, Masuda, Bisset, Luoma, & Guerrero, 2004).
From a radical behavioral perspective, private events are not regarded as causes for other behaviors (Zettle, 1990) and, as a result, do not need to be eliminated or controlled as first-order change strategies attempt to do to effect a change in overt behavior.
Most us spend most of our lives engaged in first-order change.
As Confucius is reputed to have said, "The only real fault is not to change one's faults," a criticism of those stuck in first-order change.