(trade name)


Therapeutic: anti infectives
Pharmacologic: fluoroquinolones
Pregnancy Category: C


Treatment of acute otitis externa (AOE) caused by susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus.


Inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis by inhibiting the DNA gyrase enzyme.

Therapeutic effects

Death of susceptible bacteria with resolution of infection.


Absorption: Minimal systemic absorption follows otic use.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: Unknown.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile (cessation of ear pain)

oticunknown3.5 daysunknown


Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity; cross-sensitivity with other fluoroquinolones may occur.
Use Cautiously in: Obstetric: Use in pregnancy only if potential benefit justifies potential risk to the fetus. Lactation: Use cautiously if breastfeeding; Pediatric: Safe and effective use in children <1 yr has not been established.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects


  • nausea


  • ear pruritus


  • allergic reactions


Drug-Drug interaction

None noted.


Otic (Adults and Children ≥1 yr) 4 drops in infected ear(s) twice daily for seven days. Up to 8 drops may be given as an initial dose if used with an otowick.


Suspension for otic use: 0.3% suspension 5 mL in 8 mL bottle

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess ear pain prior to and periodically during therapy.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Acute pain (Indications)


  • Otic: Warm suspension by holding bottle in hand for 1 to 2 min prior to dosing to avoid dizziness from instillation of cold suspension. Shake well before use. Instill 4 drops into affected ear twice daily for 7 days. May begin with 8 drops, followed by 4 drops, in patients requiring use of an otowick. Have patient lie with affected ear upward for 60 seconds to facilitate penetration of drops into ear canal. Repeat with other ear if necessary.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patient in proper technique for instillation of drops.
  • Advise patient to notify health care professional if signs and symptoms of allergic reactions (rash) occur.
  • Advise female patients to notify health care professional if pregnancy is planned or suspected or if breastfeeding.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Resolution of signs and symptoms of acute otitis externa (AOE).
References in periodicals archive ?
Drug profiles discussed in this report are (ceftaroline fosamil + avibactam sodium), (ceftazidime + avibactam sodium), (ceftolozane sulfate + tazobactam sodium), (meropenem+ RPX-7009), AA-139, auriclosene, C-1205, CatDex, cefepime, DAV-210, delafloxacin, Drugs to Inhibit COX-2 for Urinary Tract Infections, EBX-002, eravacycline, Escherichia coli vaccine, extraintestinal pathogenic escherichia coli vaccine, finafloxacin, FSI-1686, GP-4, klebsiella pneumoniae vaccine, LACTIN-V, Micselon, Nu-2, Nu-3, NXB-4221, omadacycline, plazomicin sulfate, Proteins for Infectious Diseases, relebactam, S-649266, Small Molecules to Inhibit 23S Ribosomal RNA for Infections, Vaccine for Urinary Tract Infection and ZTI-01.
At the present time, three of these agents are not yet available: finafloxacin otic suspension (Xtoro) for acute otitis externa, naloxegol (Movantik) for opioid-induced constipation in adults with chronic noncancer pain, and peginterferon beta-la (Plegridy) for relapsing multiple sclerosis.
Finafloxacin is currently being evaluated in Phase II clinical trials in hospital and critical care indications in which acidic foci and inflammation play a role in producing an environment that is optimal for the activity of finafloxacin.
MerLion's finafloxacin is an exciting drug which holds clinical promise for a range of bacterial infections," says Kenneth Kovan, CEO of Chaperone Technologies.
1 Finafloxacin (MerLion Pharmaceuticals/Novartis) 10.
3 MerLion Pharmaceuticals Enters Into Licensing Agreement with Alcon Pharmaceuticals for Finafloxacin
Merlion Pharmaceuticals also has a novel antibiotic drug, Finafloxacin, touted as the most powerful to date, which commenced clinical trials in September 2007.