In summary, descriptive epidemiological, morphological, and molecular evidence now support increasing cases of ocular nematode infections in domestic dogs and humans, with most cases caused by filarial worms
including Dirofilaria repens and other zoonotic Dirofilaria species and Onchocerca lupi and other zoonotic Onchocerca species.
Elephantiasis is the most obvious manifestation of lymphatic filariasis, afflicting a minority of people infected with filarial worms
Glutathione GPXs protect the filarial worms
from oxidative peroxidases (GPXs) damage, and are thus important targets for novel chemotherapy.
Filariasis is an infection caused by microscopic, thread-like worms called filarial worms
and is transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito which develops into adult worms.
In Central as well as South US, as well as some Caribbean islands, attacking midgets are the vectors of filarial worms
in the category Mansonella.
Though, other clinical manifestations due to filarial infection such as acute attacks of filarial fever and chronic manifestations of limb lymphoedema/elephantiasis are known to be influenced by the anatomic location of adult filarial worms
, presence or absence of microfilaria (mf), immune responses and secondary bacterial infections (2), but contribution of W.
are not endemic in South Africa; however, with increasing refugee and immigrant populations and travel to endemic countries clinicians may encounter acute infection in the returning traveller or sequelae from chronic infection.
At right, filarial worms
damage the human immune system and cause a water-bag like condition called elephantiasis.
The filarial worms
were easily transmitted to animals because of unhygienic conditions in shed and propagated due to negligence of farmer towards small injury or wounds.
TPE is a rare, serious manifestation that results from the hypersensitive reaction to microfilariae released by the filarial worms
(Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori).
Wolbachia is also common in filarial nematodes where its removal from the female filariae by antibiotic treatments caused permanent sterilization (7) or resulting in embryo degeneration in the filarial worms
Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis (8) and in worm sterility in Onchocerca volvulus (9).
The appearance of motile filarial worms
on ultrasonography correlates with active release of microfilariae into the lymphatic vessels and hence indicates active infection.