fetal hypoxia

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fetal hypoxia

Low levels of oxygen in the fetus, commonly as a result of diminished placental perfusion, uteroplacental insufficiency, or compression of the umbilical cord. The condition is often accompanied by acidosis and is life-threatening unless prompt interventions are undertaken to restore well-oxygenated blood to the fetus. Signs of early fetal hypoxia include tachycardia and increased variability of the fetal heart rate; profound fetal hypoxia is characterized by bradycardia and a sinusoidal fetal heart rate pattern.
See also: hypoxia


a broad term meaning diminished availability of oxygen to the body tissues.
Its causes are many and varied. There may be a deficiency of oxygen in the atmosphere, as in altitude sickness, or a pulmonary disorder that interferes with adequate ventilation of the lungs. Anemia or circulatory deficiencies can lead to inadequate transport and delivery of oxygen to the tissues. Finally, edema or other abnormal conditions of the tissues themselves may impair the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the capillaries and the tissues. The effect of hypoxia is to reduce the functional activity of tissues. The initial response may be one of temporarily increased activity. Terminally the tissue may be irreparably damaged.

anemic hypoxia
due to inadequate supply of hemoglobin in the blood.
cerebral hypoxia
may be acute or chronic causing either a tremor-convulsion syndrome or one of longer term weakness, ataxia, apparent blindness and lethargy.
fetal hypoxia
occurs as a result of deprivation of the fetus of oxygen during parturition, because it is delayed or the umbilical cord pinched off. Clinically there is weakness, imbecility, disinclination to suck, possibly hypothermia. Foals experience a much more violent, convulsive or dummy syndrome. See also neonatal maladjustment syndrome. Called also intrapartum hypoxia.
intrapartum hypoxia
see fetal hypoxia (above).
ischemic hypoxia
insufficient oxygen in tissues because of an inadequate blood supply.
stagnant hypoxia
inadequate supply of oxygen to tissues because of slow rate of passage of the blood through the tissues.
References in periodicals archive ?
EFM also reduces the risk of intrapartum fetal death from fetal hypoxia and prevents about one perinatal death per 1000 births.
We all know that persistent or recurrent late decelerations can be a sign of fetal hypoxia.
By this time, the fetal monitoring strip data showed that Kody "might be in trouble" from fetal hypoxia and acidosis.
Identical phalangeal defects induced by phenytoin and nifedipine suggest fetal hypoxia and vascular disruption behind phenytoin teratogenicity.
Rebecca Batchelor was injured when midwifery staff failed to recognise signs of fetal hypoxia at the time of her birth at Hinchingbrooke Hospital, Cambridgeshire, in February 1991.
329,330) Oxygen should be delivered to maintain saturation above 95% in order to prevent maternal and fetal hypoxia.
Schifrin, Antenatal Fetal Assessment: Overview and Implications for Neurologic Injury and Routine Testing, 38 CLINICAL OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY 132, 135 (1995) (explaining the significance of variability and other features of diagnosis of fetal hypoxia and neurological handicap).
In humans smoking causes fetal hypoxia, and nicotine is found in higher concentrations in the fetus than in the smoking mother.
After reviewing a number of studies, Devoe concluded that NST is "a feasible testing modality for most high-risk conditions with an inherent risk of intrauterine growth retardation, fetal hypoxia, or placental insufficiency.
The mechanism of distress is oxygen deprivation, which can occur in two distinct scenarios: fetal hypoxemia (insufficient oxygen in the blood) and fetal hypoxia (insufficient oxygen to the tissues).
As a result, fetal hypoxia, infarction of specific organ/systems, and subsequent vascular disruption of morphogenesis are possible.
Doppler investigation of the umbilical arteries provides information concerning perfusion of the fetoplacental circulation, while Doppler study of fetal vessels detects the haemodynamic rearrangements that occur in response to fetal hypoxia.