Degradation of ferroportin
also reduces iron release from macrophages.
sup] It is then exported by the ferroportin
(FPN) to bind to transferrin in the bloodstream,[sup], and taken to the erythroblasts for erythropoiesis.
mediates the intestinal absorption of iron from a nanoparticulate ferritin core mimetic in mice.
Inflammation up-regulates Hepcidin, the primary hepatic iron absorption regulating protein, which inhibits the activity of Ferroportin
at the intestinal basolateral cell membrane to transport iron out of storage for utilization.
It is postulated therefore that, by downregulating hepcidin synthesis, E2 may maintain ferroportin
integrity and enhance intracellular iron efflux.
If the hepcidin level is elevated because of systemic inflammation, it will deny entry to iron by upregulating ferroportin
or direct the iron to be sequestered in macrophages.
Bioactive hepcidin is a 25-amino-acid hepatic peptide hormone controlling physiological iron homeostasis (1, 2) by causing degradation of the iron-exporter ferroportin
, thereby inhibiting absorption of dietary iron from the gut and iron release from storage sites (3).
GDF15 - mediated upregulation of ferroportin
plays a key role in the development of hyperferritinemia in children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
19] Pinnix ZK, Miller LD, Wang W DAgostino R Jr, Kute T, Willingham MC, et al Ferroportin
and iron regulation in breast cancer progression and prognosis.
Hepcidin is also considered as a master regulator in the management of cellular iron homeostasis by binding to iron exporter protein ferroportin
1 (Fpn1) in cell membranes and causing its subsequent internalization and lysosomal degradation .
Iron loading increases ferroportin
heterogeneous nuclear RNA and mRNA levels in murine J774 macrophages.
Activation of M1 macrophages is associated with upregulation of iron storage protein H ferritin and reduction of ferroportin
, leading to iron retention and inflammation .