Impacting not only women, but society at large An Islamic feminism
is arguably an inherently culturally competent one, since Islam in general is a deeply diverse tradition and allows for flexibility depending on contextual realities, so long as core Islamic ethics are not violated.
That argument was reiterated by novelist, artist and activist Haifa Zangana, who presented a paper on the colonial feminisms
and the funding, establishment and purpose of key women's NGOs in Iraq.
Yet to a certain extent these texts seem to engage critically Western feminisms
more than they engage each other.
In the past, Black feminism
was sporadically situated in the framework of feminisms
; however, the current paradigm holds a distinct and impressive place in a world-view on women's rights.
is frequently blamed for the persistence of what used to be called oppression and now isn't called anything at all: feminism
failed to solve women's problems; feminism
: A Reader in Class, Difference and Women's Lives (New York: Routledge, 1997); Rosemary Hennessy, Materialist Feminism
and the Politics of Discourse (New York: Routledge, 1992); Donna Landry & Gerald Maclean, Materialist Feminisms
(Cambridge: Blackwell, 1993).
Freedman offers an interesting synthesis of global and international feminisms
in her discussion of the "politics of location"--a phrase invoked by poet Adrienne Rich in a 1984 essay on the historical context of white Western women's privileged location in systems of colonial slavery and exploitation.
, for Ruether, is not merely an academic exercise for she lives the feminist ideal of connecting theory with practice.
Although prefaced with a disclaimer suggesting that those readers indifferent to methodological concerns skip over this section and "get on with the story," the questions she raises regarding the relationship between historiography and feminisms
should not be overlooked.
One of the premises of this book, according to the editor, Alena Heitlinger, is that the emigre, exile, or expatriate who travels between nations is in a unique position, as both insider and outsider, to understand that feminism
is always situated in a particular culture and thus needs to be "translated" (which of course begs the question, and one that is not always fully addressed in this collection, about who is engaged in the translating of culture and for whom).
Multicultural Rights in Liberal Democracies: Feminism
Makdisi said she hoped the conference would help answer such complex questions as how feminism
plays a role in the tumultuous Arab world, secular and Muslim feminisms
's relationship to the state, and how feminism
can be used to advance the rights of women in the region.