ovary

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ovary

 [o´vah-re]
the female gonad; either of the sex glands in the female in which the ova are formed. Ovaries are paired oval organs approximately 3 cm long, 2 cm wide, and 1 cm thick, one on either side of the uterus, usually near the lateral pelvic wall adjacent to the anterior superior iliac spine. They have two basic functions: ovulation and the production of hormones, chiefly estrogen and progesterone, which influence a woman's feminine physical characteristics and affect the process of reproduction. ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of death among women in the United States. adj., adj ovar´ian.

o·va·ry

(ō'vă-rē), [TA]
One of the paired female reproductive glands containing the oocytes or germ cells; the ovaries stroma is a vascular connective tissue containing numbers of ovarian follicles enclosing the oocytes; surrounding this stroma is a more condensed layer of stroma called the tunica albuginea.
Synonym(s): ovarium [TA], female gonad, genital gland (2)
[Mod. L. ovarium, fr. ovum, egg]

ovary

/ova·ry/ (o´vah-re) the female gonad: either of the paired female sexual glands in which oocytes are formed.ova´rian
Enlarge picture
Ovary. Inset shows the ovarian microstructure, with the stages of ovarian follicle development depicted counterclockwise from the top right, showing follicles progressively more mature: from primordial to primary, secondary, then tertiary, followed by ovulation, and finally corpora lutea from maturation to degeneration.

polycystic ovaries  ovaries containing multiple small follicular cysts filled with yellow or bloodstained thin serous fluid, as in polycystic ovary syndrome.

ovary

(ō′və-rē)
n. pl. ova·ries
1.
a. One of the paired female reproductive organs that produce eggs and female sex hormones in humans and other vertebrates.
b. An analogous gland in an invertebrate animal, such as a flatworm or a mollusk.
2. Botany The ovule-bearing lower part of a pistil that ripens into a fruit.

ovary

[ō′vərē]
Etymology: L, ovum, egg
one of the paired female gonads found on each side of the lower abdomen, beside the uterus in a fold of the broad ligament. At ovulation, an egg is expelled from a follicle on the surface of the ovary under the stimulation of the gonadotrophic hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The remainder of the follicle (corpus luteum) secretes the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which regulate the menstrual cycle by a negative-feedback system in which an increase in estrogen decreases the secretion of FSH by the pituitary gland and an increase in progesterone decreases the secretion of LH. Each ovary is normally firm and smooth and resembles an almond in size and shape. The ovaries generally are homologous to the testes.

ovary

Either of the two female gonads, which are located next to the fallopian tubes and serve as endocrine glands and reserves for eggs (ova) that are released monthly, from menarche to menopause.

occult primary malignancy

Occult cancer, unknown primary A malignancy of unknown 1º site or origin that is symptomless, which first manifests itself as metastases or secondary–paraneoplastic phenomena, and usually has a poor prognosis; OPMs are problematic as appropriate therapy requires that the primary malignancy be eradicated, and many remain obscure despite aggressive diagnostic work-up; certain malignancies metastasize to certain sites with greater than expected frequency; in OPMs affecting the brain, the primary arises in the lungs in up to 85% Treatment Up to 30% of Pts with metastases from an occult primary adenoCA may respond to chemotherapy–mitomycin C, adriamycin, vincristine; poor response is more common in ♂ and in Pts with liver and/or infradiaphragmatic metastases
Occult primary malignancies
Bone Breast, bronchus, prostate, thyroid, kidney
CNS Breast, bronchus, kidney, colon
Head & neck Oropharynx, nasopharynx–most are squamous cell carcinoma;  also adenocarcinoma, melanoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, oat cell, salivary  gland, thyroid carcinomas
Liver CA of stomach, colon, breast, pancreas, or bronchus
Lung Breast, colon, kidney, melanoma, sarcoma, stomach, testis, thyroid
Lymph nodes
• Cervix  Naso– and oropharynx, thyroid, larynx, lymphoma
• Supraclavicular  Bronchi, breast, stomach, esophagus, pancreas, colorectal,
lymphoma
• Axillary  Breast, melanoma, lymphoma
• Inguinal  Urogenital tract, anus, melanoma, lymphoma
Ovary Stomach, colon
Serosal surfaces Bronchi, breast, ovary, lymphoma
Skin Melanoma, breast, bronchus, stomach, kidney  

o·va·ry

(ō'vă-rē) [TA]
One of the paired female reproductive glands containing the oocytes (ova) or germ cells; its stroma is a vascular connective tissue containing ovarian follicles, each enclosing an oocyte; surrounding this stroma is a denser layer called the tunica albuginea.
Synonym(s): ovarium [TA] , oophoron.
[Mod. L. ovarium, fr. ovum, egg]

ovary

One of the paired female gonads, situated in the pelvis, one on each side of the womb (uterus), just under and inward of the open ends of the FALLOPIAN TUBES. Ovaries are almond-shaped and about 3 cm long. They are the site of egg (OVUM) formation and release one or more ova each month about 14 days before the onset of the next menstrual period. This is called ovulation. See also OOCYTE, OOGONIA.

ovary

the organ that produces the female gametes by a process called GAMETOGENESIS. In mammals, it also gives rise to the CORPUS LUTEUM from the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE after ovulation, and in vertebrates generally produces the female hormones oestrogen and progesterone. In plants, the ovary occurs at the base of the CARPEL and contains one or more OVULES. See GYNOECIUM for inferior and superior ovaries.

Ovary

One of the two almond-shaped glands in the female reproductive system responsible for producing eggs and the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

ovary

the female gonad, the site of production of ova; one on each side, in the pelvic cavity, close to the open end of each Fallopian tube. An ovum is discharged into one of these tubes en route for the uterus at ovulation in each menstrual cycle. The ovaries are also endocrine glands (under the influence in turn of anterior pituitary gonadotrophic hormones), secreting the female hormones oestrogen and progestogen. These have actions both widely in the body and on the reproductive organs at specific times in the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy. See also hormones; Table 1.
Table 1: Hormones
Site of productionName of hormoneMain targetsInvolved in regulating:Secretion controlled by:
HypothalamusReleasing and inhibiting hormonesAnterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)Secretion of anterior pituitary hormonesOther brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions
Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:
OxytocinUterus, breastsLabour and lactationAfferent information from target organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)KidneysWater loss: ECF volume and osmolalityHypothalamic osmoreceptors
Anterior pituitary(Human) growth hormone (H)GHMost cellsGrowth and metabolismHypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels
ProlactinBreastsMilk production
Trophic hormones:
Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)Thyroid glandThyroid secretions
GonadotrophinsOvary or testisGerm cell maturation and hormone secretions
Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Adrenal cortexCortisol secretion
Pineal bodyMelatoninWidespread, including brain, thymus, etc.
  • Sleep/wake cycle
  • Antioxidant
  • Immune system
Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina
Thyroid
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Most cells
  • Bone, kidneys, gut
  • Cellular oxidative metabolism
  • Decreases ECF [Ca2+]
  • TSH from anterior pituitary. Negative feedback from blood hormone concentration
  • ECF [Ca2+]
ParathyroidsParathormoneBone, kidneys, gut
  • Calcium and phosphorus absorption, secretion and turnover in bone.
  • Increases ECF [Ca2+]
ECF [Ca2+]
Adrenal: Cortex
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Androgens
  • Most cells
  • Kidneys
  • Gonads & other tissues
  • Metabolism
  • Response to stress
  • Na and K balance
  • Sex characteristics and reproductive function
  • ACTH from anterior pituitary
  • ECF [Na+] [K+]
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • ACTH
Medulla
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
Heart, smooth muscle, glandsCardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stressSympathetic nervous system
Atrial wallAtrial natriuretic hormoneKidneysBlood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urineStretch of atrial wall by venous pressure
Gonads: TestisAndrogens (mainly testosterone)Genitalia and other tissuesReproductive function and sex characteristicsAnterior pituitary gonadotrophins
Ovary
  • Oestrogens
  • Progesterone
Uterus, breasts and other tissuesMenstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation
Pancreas
  • Insulin, glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • Most cells
  • Other secretory cells in the pancreas
Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fatsBlood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones
Alimentary tract
StomachGastrinGastric acid-secreting cellsGastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretionsLocal chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract
Small intestine
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
  • Somatostatin, motilin
  • Other peptide hormones including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
  • Widespread on
  • GI tract
Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretionsIngestion of food, distension of GI tract

o·va·ry

(ō'vă-rē) [TA]
One of the paired female reproductive glands containing the oocytes or germ cells.
[Mod. L. ovarium, fr. ovum, egg]

ovary

pl. ovaries; the female gonad; either of the sex glands in the female in which the ova are formed and from which the sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, are released. Small, round bodies varying in size with the species and the stage of the estral cycle, they are located one each at the end of the ovarian (fallopian) tubes, in the ovarian bursa. In birds two ovaries are present but usually the right one remains small and nonfunctional.
Enlarge picture
Ovary of a sow with mature follicles. By permission from Sack W, Wensing CJG, Dyce KM, Textbook of Veterinary Anatomy, Saunders, 2002

accessory ovary
very rare in domestic animals; usually located close to or attached to a normal ovary. See also supernumerary ovary (below).
cystic ovary
see cystic ovarian disease
supernumerary ovary
occurs widely situated from normal ovary, formed presumably from a separate anlage in contradistinction to an accessory ovary which results from a splitting of the embryonic gonad and is usually attached to the normal gonad.

Patient discussion about ovary

Q. Dear Doctors,I had cyst in my left ovary and poped it off,after that I have a small pain every day. in HSG everything was OK.my Pop smir is ok and in histroscopy every thing was ok. would you please ask me why I have this pain?

A. as Ann already mentioned - this is a good place to get good advises, not diagnosis... my advise to you is to ask the gyno how long there should be pain after the surgery. i'm sure it take couple of days minimum but i would ask him about it. if there's something wrong he'll know what to do.
sorry i can't help more...

Q. my little sister have her periode badly.it stay for a months somethimes what can cause that? Since she start having her periode is been a problem and anybody cannot give us a straight answer she's been a hospitolize and had to have blood transfussion she's always anemic and sh'es been putting on pills but her body did not react good to it we had to stop.Sometimes she fells so weak that she pass out.The doctor say she may need to hospitolized again she doenst want to and we dont know how to help her she just wants a normal teenager and get ready to go away to collegebut we are scare that may not happens,she loves school so much and she feltthat she will never be a normal woman like everybody and scare that she may never have children one day i tell her to not be worry about it but i feel helpless.Please tell me what's wrong with her since nobody seems to give us a straight answers.Is follicular cyst of ovaries can put her in so much pain.

A. The menstrual cycle is not the same for every woman. On average, menstrual flow occurs every 28 days (with most women having cycles between 24 and 34 days), and lasts about 4 days. However, there is wide variation in timing and duration that is still considered normal, especially if your periods began within the last few years. Causes:
Anovulation (failure of ovaries to produce, mature, or release eggs)
Endometrial polyps (the endometrium is the inner lining of the uterus)
Endometrial hyperplasia (thickening/build up of the uterine wall)
Endometrial cancer
Uterine fibroids
For the full article: http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/symptoms/menstrual-periods-heavy-prolonged-or-irregular/overview.html Hope this helps.

More discussions about ovary
References in periodicals archive ?
Overall, the results of this study showed that digestive cell and germ cell necroses and inflammations in both digestive gland and gonad, especially the female gonad, were the most common histopathologic lesions detected in M.
Above 12[degrees]C (sampling point 2 in all experiments), a rapid increase occurred in the average female reproductive stage, with a significant proportion of female gonad exhibiting follicles containing ripe vitellogenic oocytes.
gigas DMRT-like gene exhibits significantly higher expression in the male gonads than in the female gonads using RT-PCR, and suggested that the gene participates in gonadal development, which is in agreement with our results.
Najmudeen (2008) conducted ultrastructure characterization on wild-caught Haliotis varia (Linnaeus, 1758) female gonads and concluded that oogenesis could be divided structurally into 5 stages in this species.
Independent of treatment, all fish identified as genetic females (XX) in these experiments possessed normal female gonads.
Last, the Vn content of the female gonads followed the same pattern described earlier for hemolymph (Table 2), with significantly lower values observed during the PVt stage (428 [micro]g/g), followed by an increase during the intermediate stages of maturation (EVt and LVt, 582-733 [micro]g/g) and a decrease during the spawning stage (SP, 552 [micro]g/g).
Altogether, we noted an effect of Cd in human male and female gonads between the 7th and the 12th week postconception and in 12.
No whelk were found to contain both male and female gonads in histological sections.
2) The female gonads were considered to rest adjacent to ischial spines above the pubic arch, which is also readily visible on plain pelvic radiographs.
Male and female gonads are distinguishable by gross morphologic characteristics at NF stage 56 (Bogi et al.
thesis, 1978), and animals that have both male and female gonads can be found.