The United States must also remember to consider states where an obvious threat may not be prevalent, but female circumcision
still occurs, such as Finland.
It is fair to say that one in 10 of all admissions have undergone female circumcision
In Britain, which outlawed the procedure in 1985, but where hundreds of girls are still mutilated each year, some schools are instituting programs by which "teachers there would soon be trained to detect victims of female circumcision
and pupils at risk" said Lynette Parvez, of Kelmscott School in London.
As an artist with a social voice, Musasama brings to light discourse on sex slavery, female circumcision
and other lessons pertaining to human rights, such as mass burial sites of the unnamed and the need for clean water worldwide based on what she personally experienced or learned.
In our third feature to mark the 100th International Women's Day Catherine Vonledebur speaks to doctors, midwives, campaigners and researchers in Coventry tackling the painful and dangerous practice of female circumcision
- locally, nationally and internationally.
, also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), is any procedure involving the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reasons.
The "controversy" goes back at least as far as the days of Jommo Kenyatta who, in his Facing Mount Kenya (published in 1938), justified female circumcision
on the grounds that is part of Kikuyu culture, fully accepted by the women themselves.
A group of Muslim clerics and scholars in Mauritania have declared a fatwa, or religious decree, against the practice of female circumcision
, which involves removing part or all of a girl's clitoris and labia, and sometimes narrowing the vaginal opening.
In office, he opposed female circumcision
, a practice widely criticized by rights groups, as unislamic.
Aa He angered radicals by supporting organ transplants, denouncing female circumcision
and by ruling that women should be appointed to top government judicial and administrative positions.
Njenga had led Mungiki, a pseudo-religious group of dreadlocked youths who worshipped spirits in Mount Kenya and embraced rituals such as female circumcision
In 2008, the law was met with objections by the Muslim Brotherhood and independent MPs, who argued that female circumcision
is part of the Shariah law as it protects a woman's chastity.