poliomyelitis

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poliomyelitis

 [po″le-o-mi″ĕ-li´tis]
an acute infectious disease occurring sporadically or in epidemics and caused by a virus, usually a poliovirus but occasionally a coxsackievirus or echovirus. Called also polio.

Initial clinical characteristics include fever, sore throat, headache, and vomiting, often with stiffness of the neck and back. In the minor illness these may be the only symptoms. The major illness (called also infantile paralysis), which may or may not be preceded by the minor illness, is characterized by involvement of the central nervous system, stiff neck, pleocytosis in the spinal fluid, and perhaps paralysis within a week. Bulbar poliomyelitis is a serious form involving the medulla oblongata and usually becomes evident within three days. The muscles of swallowing and breathing are affected, so that the patient has difficulty swallowing, speaking, and breathing. In all forms, there may be subsequent atrophy of groups of muscles, ending in contraction and permanent deformity.

There are three known types of poliovirus, each causing a different type of the disease. Most paralytic cases are caused by type 1. Poliovirus is found in the throat of a patient for the first few days of the disease, and in the intestines for a longer period, sometimes as long as 17 weeks. The disease spreads by means of droplets of moisture from an infected person's throat or by waste products from the intestines. The contagious period is 7 or more days from the time of onset of the disease. The poliovirus is short-lived, and cannot survive long in the air. The incubation period of polio is from 1 to 2 weeks, and occasionally as long as 3 weeks. Members of the family or other contacts may be carriers, but only for a short period of time.
Treatment. There is at present no cure for polio; once the disease begins it must be allowed to run its course. Supportive care is important, however, and proper symptomatic treatment can reduce discomfort and prevent some crippling aftereffects. Applications of heat in the form of hot wet packs, diathermy, warm baths in the form of hydrotherapy, and gentle exercising can reduce pain caused by muscle spasms and prevent deformities. During the acute stage of the disease bed rest is essential and the patient is kept warm and quiet.
Postpolio Weakness. Although immunization efforts to eradicate polio have reduced its current incidence in the United States to fewer than 10 cases each year, survivors of previous epidemics are experiencing a second encounter with the illness. Weakness in one or more muscles appears to be a late complication of the infection. The weakness can affect muscles that were first involved in the disease or it can affect those that were not formerly weakened. The cause of this phenomenon is not yet known and there is no treatment available, other than medications known to be effective in combating autoimmune diseases. It is hoped that this form of therapy will retard or arrest the process causing the weakness.
Prevention. The first safe, effective vaccine against polio used killed polioviruses to stimulate production and release of antibodies. It was developed under the direction of Dr. Jonas E. Salk, and was nicknamed the Salk vaccine; its proper name is poliovirus vaccine inactivated (IPV). It was later replaced by an oral preparation of attenuated viruses called poliovirus vaccine live oral, nicknamed the Sabin vaccine after its discoverer, Dr. Albert Sabin. In recent years in the United States, the Salk vaccine has come back into use. It does not induce intestinal immunity and so is not effective for poliovirus eradication in areas where wild-type polioviruses still exist in large numbers. However, it does not cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis and so is preferred for routine immunization in areas where the risk of infection by a wild-type polivirus is very low.

po·li·o·my·e·li·tis

(pō'lē-ō-mī'ĕ-lī'tis),
An inflammatory process involving the gray matter of the spinal cord.
[polio- + G. myelos, marrow, + -itis, inflammation]

poliomyelitis

/po·lio·my·eli·tis/ (-mi″ĕ-li´tis) an acute viral disease usually caused by a poliovirus and marked clinically by fever, sore throat, headache, vomiting, and often stiffness of the neck and back; these may be the only symptoms of the minor illness. In the major illness, which may or may not be preceded by the minor illness, there is central nervous system involvement, stiff neck, pleocytosis in spinal fluid, and perhaps paralysis; there may be subsequent atrophy of muscle groups, ending in contraction and permanent deformity.
abortive poliomyelitis  the minor illness of poliomyelitis.
acute anterior poliomyelitis  the major illness of poliomyelitis.
ascending poliomyelitis  poliomyelitis with a cephalad progression.
bulbar poliomyelitis  a severe form affecting the medulla oblongata, which may result in dysfunction of the swallowing mechanism, respiratory embarrassment, and circulatory distress.
cerebral poliomyelitis  poliomyelitis that extends into the brain.
spinal paralytic poliomyelitis  the classic form of acute anterior poliomyelitis, with the appearance of flaccid paralysis of one or more limbs.

poliomyelitis

(pō′lē-ō-mī′ə-lī′tĭs)
n.
A highly infectious viral disease that chiefly affects children and, in its acute forms, causes inflammation of motor neurons of the spinal cord and brainstem, leading to paralysis, muscular atrophy, and often deformity. Through vaccination, the disease is preventable. Also called infantile paralysis, polio.

po′li·o·my′e·lit′ic (-lĭt′ĭk) adj.

poliomyelitis

[pō′lē·ōmī′əlī′tis]
Etymology: Gk, polios + myelos, marrow, itis
an infectious disease caused by one of the three polioviruses. Asymptomatic, mild, and paralytic forms of the disease occur. Several factors influence susceptibility to the virus and the course of the disease: More boys than girls are severely affected, stress increases susceptibility, more pregnant than nonpregnant women acquire the paralytic form of the disease, and the severity of the infection increases with age. It is transmitted from person to person through fecal contamination or oropharyngeal secretions. The disease is prevented by vaccination. Also called
Usage notes: (informal)
polio. See also acute atrophic paralysis, poliovirus.
observations Asymptomatic infection has no clinical features, but it confers immunity. Abortive poliomyelitis lasts only a few hours and is characterized by minor illness with fever, malaise, headache, nausea, vomiting, and slight abdominal discomfort. Nonparalytic poliomyelitis is longer lasting and is marked by meningeal irritation with pain and stiffness in the back and by all the signs of abortive poliomyelitis. Paralytic poliomyelitis begins as abortive poliomyelitis. The symptoms abate, and for several days the person seems well. Malaise, headache, and fever recur; pain, weakness, and paralysis develop. The peak of paralysis is reached within the first week. In spinal poliomyelitis, viral replication occurs in the anterior horn cells of the spine, causing inflammation, swelling, and, if severe, destruction of the neurons. The large proximal muscles of the limbs are most often affected. Bulbar poliomyelitis results from viral multiplication in the brainstem. Bulbar and spinal poliomyelitis often occur together.

poliomyelitis

(1) A nonspecific term for inflammation affecting the spinal cord grey matter. 
(2) Acute anterior poliomyelitis.

poliomyelitis

Neurology A condition characterized by the selective destruction of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and/or brain stem, ± leading to muscle weakness, paralysis and respiratory paralysis Etiology Viral, in particular poliovirus, but also coxsackie A7, enterovirus 71, and others Clinical If extreme, asymmetric flaccid paralysis Lab CSF pleocytosis, ↑ lymphocytes. Cf Aseptic meningitis.

po·li·o·my·e·li·tis

(pō'lē-ō-mī'ĕ-lī'tis)
An inflammatory process involving the gray matter of the spinal cord.
[G. polion, gray matter + G. myelos, marrow, + -itis, inflammation]

poliomyelitis

An infectious disease, affecting mainly children and young adults, caused by one of three strains of polioviruses and spread by faecal contamination. The illness caused is usually mild and unimportant but the virus may attack the brain and spinal cord leading to extensive and fatal paralysis. In most cases polio causes no more than a few days of slight fever, sore throat, headache and vomiting. In some cases, however, stiffness of the neck and back, muscle aching and twitching occur and the condition progresses to paralysis. The use of polio vaccines (the spread of which has also been assisted by faecal contamination) has virtually eliminated the disease in developed countries. Also known as infantile paralysis.

poliomyelitis

a paralytic disease in which cells of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM become destroyed by the polio virus, leading to crippling, although most infections are not serious and the patient usually recovers full health. The disease can be kept in check by the administration of vaccines, the most popular being a live, attenuated type. In Western countries administration of such vaccines is now routine and the disease is very rare.

anterior poliomyelitis

acute spinal viral meningitis affecting primarily spinal cord anterior (motor) horn cells; presenting initially as a short (approximately 3 weeks) flu-like illness; 1:10 develop lower motor neurone lesions (paralysis of skeletal muscles subserved by affected spinal nerves), muscle atrophy and soft-tissue contracture with resultant limb/foot deformity (e.g. fixed equinovarus or calcaneovalgus foot), gait effects and abnormal plantar loading; lumbar and sacral autonomic ganglia involvement causes disruption of vasomotor control and affected limbs are cold, mottled and anhidrotic

po·li·o·my·e·li·tis

(pō'lē-ō-mī'ĕ-lī'tis)
Inflammatory process involving gray matter of spinal cord.
[G. polion, gray matter + G. myelos, marrow, + -itis, inflammation]

poliomyelitis (pō´lēōmī´əlī´tis),

n a disease produced by a small viral organism that enters the body via the alimentary tract and produces upper pharyngeal, pharyngeal, and intestinal inflammation in its mentor form. In the more severe variety, a subsequent viremia is produced, with extension of the infection to the anterior pulp horn cells and ganglia of the spinal cord, producing a flaccid paralysis. In
bulbar poliomyelitis the viral infection involves the medulla, resulting in impairment of swallowing, respiration, and circulation. It is now recognized that three types of viruses are responsible for the nonparalytic, paralytic, and bulbar varieties of poliomyelitis. The condition is rare in the United States due to vaccination by killed viruses (Salk) and attenuated mutant vaccines (Sabin).

poliomyelitis

inflammation of the gray matter of the brain; also the name applied to the viral disease of humans and also known as polio.

feline poliomyelitis
poliomyelitis suum
see porcine viral encephalomyelitis.

Patient discussion about poliomyelitis

Q. is polio contagus If i have a friend that had it when he was younger and it went away and then came back can i get it?

A. highly contagious, it's an Enterovirus. if your friend didn't wash his hands after the bathroom and touched your sandwich it can infect you. he can even contaminate water sources...but no air-born contamination. but most western countries vaccinated against that, so you should be fine.

Q. Polio Syndrome pain One of my aunt is taking Neurontin for Post Polio Syndrome pain in her left leg and arm. she did not realize that she had so much pain and that it was keeping her from doing so many things. Is Neurontin recomended for this treatment and how does it help? Will she have problems with Neurontin if she take it long term? Neurontin is greatly helping the pain but not the fatique in these limbs. Should it help the fatigue?

A. Neurontin is being given as medication for nerve pain now also...I take 800 mg a day and it was started for back pain and it is also being used in some fibro patients I am learning( i also have fibromyalgia) It didn't cause me a lot of drowsness but amount of medication and medications affect people differently so each person can be different. But with the fatigue fibromyalgia causes maybe I just can't tell the difference b/c before I started it I was tried all the time and that is not any worse. But if your Aunt and yourself feel uncomfortable with this treatment I would suggest a second opinion. Good Luck to your Aunt

Q. Help for/with post-polio problems

A. Clemon -you'll have to be more specific on what kind of help do you ask for. you seek info? seek other people suffering from post-polio? what?
all i can do is give you a good link about it with some info..hope that what you look for:
http://www.post-polio.org/edu/pabout.html

More discussions about poliomyelitis