Ages of individuals with fatty streaks
ranged from 14 to 47 years, and with atheroma from 22 to 46 years.
Mechanism: Insulin resistance 1 - Hyperinsulinemia 2 - Increased VLDL triglyceride 5 - Decreased HDL-cholesterol - Hypertension 4 * Inhibitor: - Normal insulin levels 1 (Moderate alcohol consumption) Mechanism: Pathogenic levels of LDL 5 * Inhibitors: - Increased plasma HDL (Moderate alcohol consumption) 2 - (Resveratrol in wine) 3 Mechanism: Oxidation of native LDL 7 * Inhibitors: - HDL in intima 5 - Anti-oxidants in red wine 4 Mechanism: Deposition of lipids in macrophages, foam cells & fatty streaks 8 9 10 * Inhibitor: Removal of lipids by HDL 6
In another hypothesis, endothelial injury, which may also result in part from the effects of LDL oxidation, may explain the progression of the fatty streaks to the more advanced lesions (Steinberg et al.
Gross examination: Sudan IV-stained luminal aspect in all the aortic strips from group I showed smooth unstained surface while those from group II revealed multiple macroscopically visible atheromatous plaques mainly in arch of aorta and fatty streaks in descending thoracic and abdominal segments, more marked around the branching orifices and with a decreasing gradient towards aortic bifurcation (Figure 2).
Intima was laden with foam cells in the form of raised and wide fatty streaks.
He explained the procedure: "The hamsters were on a high-fat diet and you get signs of heart disease with the fatty streaks
in the arteries after 12 weeks.
The researchers discovered mast cells in 50 percent of the normal vessel sections, in 84 percent of the fatty streaks
, and in 95 percent of the so-called shoulder, a rupture-prone area of the plaque (see illustration).
LDLs ferry cholesterol to blood vessel walls, depositing it as fatty streaks
Normally present in the spaces between cells, these cholesterol-carrying compounds can accumulate into larger deposits that may play a very early role in coronary artery disease -- appearing even before the telltale fatty streaks
that often precede hardening of the arteries.
Preliminary results from a multicenter study show that teenagers can develop well-established fatty streaks
in their coronary artery walls, and that some teens even develop artery-narrowing plaque.
At the same time, evidence of potential heart disease -- once thought to be confined to older people -- is being found in some children as young as 3 years of age, in the form of fatty streaks
in the heart's main artery, the aorta.
Connors and his colleagues showed that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids decreases serum cholesterol and LDL levels, reducing the risk that fatty streaks
will form in the arteries.