fat hernia


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hernia

 [her´ne-ah]
the abnormal protrusion of part of an organ or tissue through the structures normally containing it. adj., adj her´nial. A weak spot or other abnormal opening in a body wall permits part of the organ to bulge through. A hernia may develop in various parts of the body, most commonly in the region of the abdomen (abdominal hernia), and may be either acquired or congenital. An old popular term for hernia is rupture, but this term is misleading because it suggests tearing and nothing is torn in a hernia. Although various supports and trusses can be tried in an effort to contain the hernia, the best treatment for this condition is herniorrhaphy, surgical repair of the weakness in the muscle wall through which the hernia protrudes.
Bochdalek's hernia congenital posterolateral diaphragmatic hernia, with extrusion of bowel and other abdominal viscera into the thorax; due to failure of closure of the pleuroperitoneal hiatus.
cerebral hernia (hernia ce´rebri) protrusion of brain substance through a defect in the skull.
crural hernia femoral hernia.
diaphragmatic hernia see diaphragmatic hernia.
fat hernia hernial protrusion of peritoneal fat through the abdominal wall.
femoral hernia protrusion of a loop of intestine into the femoral canal, a tubular passageway that carries nerves and blood vessels to the thigh; this type occurs more often in women than in men. Called also crural hernia and femorocele.
hiatal hernia (hiatus hernia) protrusion of a structure, often a portion of the stomach, through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm; see diaphragmatic hernia.
Holthouse's hernia an inguinal hernia that has turned outward into the groin.
incarcerated hernia a hernia so occluded that it cannot be returned by manipulation; it may or may not become strangulated. Called also irreducible hernia.
incisional hernia hernia after operation at the site of the surgical incision, owing to improper healing or to excessive strain on the healing tissue; such strain may be caused by excessive muscular effort, such as that involved in lifting or severe coughing, or by obesity, which creates additional pressure on the weakened area.
inguinal hernia hernia occurring in the groin, or inguen, where the abdominal folds of flesh meet the thighs. It is often the result of increased pressure within the abdomen, whether due to lifting, coughing, straining, or accident. Inguinal hernia accounts for about 75 per cent of all hernias.

A sac formed from the peritoneum and containing a portion of the intestine or omentum, or both, pushes either directly outward through the weakest point in the abdominal wall (direct hernia) or downward at an angle into the inguinal canal (indirect hernia). Indirect inguinal hernia (the common form) occurs more often in males because it follows the tract that develops when the testes descend into the scrotum before birth, and the hernia itself may descend into the scrotum. In the female, the hernia follows the course of the round ligament of the uterus.

Inguinal hernia begins usually as a small breakthrough. It may be hardly noticeable, appearing as a soft lump under the skin, no larger than a marble, and there may be little pain. As time passes, the pressure of the contents of the abdomen against the weak abdominal wall may increase the size of the opening and, accordingly, the size of the lump formed by the hernia. In the early stages, an inguinal hernia is usually reducible—it can be pushed gently back into its normal place. Inguinal hernia usually requires herniorrhaphy.
intra-abdominal hernia (intraperitoneal hernia) a congenital anomaly of intestinal positioning, occurring within the abdomen, in which a portion of bowel protrudes through a defect in the peritoneum or, as a result of abnormal rotation of the intestine during embryonic development, becomes trapped in a sac of peritoneum.
irreducible hernia incarcerated hernia.
mesocolic hernia an intra-abdominal hernia in which the small intestine rotates incompletely during development and becomes trapped within the mesentery of the colon.
Morgagni's hernia congenital retrosternal diaphragmatic hernia, with extrusion of tissue into the thorax through the foramen of Morgagni.
paraesophageal hernia hiatal hernia in which part or almost all of the stomach protrudes through the hiatus into the thorax to the left of the esophagus, with the gastroesophageal junction remaining in place.
Paraesophageal hernia. From Dorland's, 2000.
posterior vaginal hernia downward protrusion of the pouch of Douglas, with its intestinal contents, between the posterior vaginal wall and the rectum; called also enterocele. See illustration.
Posterior vaginal hernia. From McKinney et al., 2000.
reducible hernia one that can be returned by manipulation.
Richter's hernia incarcerated or strangulated hernia in which only a portion of the circumference of the bowel wall is involved.
rolling hernia paraesophageal hernia.
scrotal hernia an inguinal hernia that has passed into the scrotum.
sliding hernia hernia of the cecum (on the right) or the sigmoid colon (on the left) in which the wall of the viscus forms a portion of the hernial sac, the remainder of the sac being formed by the parietal peritoneum.
sliding hiatal hernia the most common type of diaphragmatic hernia; a hiatal hernia in which the upper stomach and the cardioesophageal junction protrude upward into the posterior mediastinum. The protrusion, which may be fixed or intermittent, is partially covered by a peritoneal sac.
Sliding hiatal hernia. From Dorland's, 2000.
slip hernia (slipped hernia) sliding hernia.
strangulated hernia one that is tightly constricted. As any hernia progresses and bulges out through the weak point in its containing wall, the opening in the wall tends to close behind it, forming a narrow neck. If the neck becomes pinched tight enough to cut off the blood supply, the hernia will quickly swell and become strangulated. This is a very dangerous condition that can appear suddenly and requires immediate surgical attention. Unless the blood supply is restored promptly, gangrene can set in and may cause death. If a hernia suddenly grows larger, becomes tense, and will not go back into place, and there is pain and nausea, it is strangulated. Occasionally, especially in the elderly, hernia strangulation may occur without pain or tenderness.
umbilical hernia see umbilical hernia.
vaginal hernia hernia into the vagina; called also colpocele.

fat her·ni·a

a hernia in which the tissue protruding out of its normal location is composed only of fat.

fat her·ni·a

(fat hĕr'nē-ă)
One in which the tissue protruding out of its normal location is composed only of fat.

hernia

the abnormal protrusion of part of an organ or tissue through the structures normally containing it.
In this condition, a weak spot or other abnormal opening in a body wall permits part of the organ to bulge through. A hernia may develop in various parts of the body; most commonly in the region of the abdomen.
A layman's term for hernia is rupture. A hernia is either acquired or congenital.
Anatomically specific hernias are listed under their individual sites.

caudal abdominal h's
see inguinal, femoral, scrotal hernias (below).
cerebral hernia
see brain herniation.
cord hernia
a type of umbilical hernia in which the midgut has failed to return to the abdominal cavity during fetal development and remains within the umbilical cord.
crural hernia
femoral hernia.
external hernia
protrusion of abdominal contents through an opening in the abdominal wall.
false hernia
a structural defect with contents but without a peritoneal sac.
fat hernia
hernial protrusion of peritoneal fat through the abdominal wall or through the vulvar wall during a difficult calving.
incarcerated hernia
hernia so occluded that it cannot be returned by manipulation; it may or may not become strangulated.
incisional hernia
hernia after operation at the site of the surgical incision, owing to improper healing or to excessive strain on the healing tissue; such strain may be caused by excessive muscular effort, activity, or by obesity, which creates additional pressure on the weakened area.
inguinoscrotal hernia
see scrotal hernia (below).
irreducible hernia
incarcerated hernia.
mesenteric hernia
hernia of a loop of small intestine through a traumatic tear in the mesentery.
muscle hernia
the belly of the muscle protrudes through a tear in the fascia and epimysium.
paraesophageal hernia
hiatal hernia in which part or almost all of the stomach protrudes through the hiatus into the thorax to the left of the esophagus, with the gastroesophageal junction remaining in place.
pelvic hernia
hernia caused by a loop of intestine becoming incarcerated in a hiatus between the wall of the pelvis and the ductus deferens, caused by tearing of the fold of the ductus at castration. May occur many months after the castration operation. Can be resolved, if diagnosed early enough, by traction on the taut mesentery per rectum.
pericardial hernia
perineal hernia
see perineal hernia.
pleuroperitoneal hernia
see diaphragmatic hernia.
prepubic hernia
the result of avulsion of the cranial pubic tendon.
reducible hernia
one that can be returned by manipulation.
scrotal hernia
inguinal hernia which has passed into the scrotum. When these become strangulated they cause severe abdominal pain and acute local swelling. In large animals the tightened spermatic cord can be felt disappearing into the inguinal canal. See also intestinal obstruction.
Enlarge picture
Scrotal hernia in a horse. By permission from Knottenbelt DC, Pascoe RR, Diseases and Disorders of the Horse, Saunders, 2003
sliding hiatal hernia
hiatal hernia in which the stomach and the cardioesophageal junction protrude into the caudal mediastinum; the protrusion, which may be fixed or intermittent, is partially covered by a peritoneal sac.
slip hernia, slipped hernia
sliding hernia.
strangulated hernia
one that is tightly constricted. As any hernia progresses and bulges out through the weak point in its containing wall, the opening in the wall tends to close behind it, forming a narrow neck. If this neck is pinched tight enough to cut off the venous return, the hernia will quickly swell and become strangulated. This is a very dangerous condition that can appear suddenly and requires immediate surgical attention. Unless the blood supply is restored promptly, gangrene can set in and may cause death.
traumatic hernia
protrusion of abdominal viscera into a subcutaneous site because of traumatic injury to the abdominal muscles.
uterine hernia
a gravid uterus can prolapse through an inguinal hernia in dogs and cats.
vaginal hernia
hernia into the vagina; called also colpocele.
ventral hernia
trauma with tearing of the body wall results in prolapse of abdominal contents into the subcutaneous tissue. Also reported in ewes from violent straining during parturition.