chamomilla may inhibit fungal growth via specific inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis, probably by inhibiting one of the enzymes responsible for the formation of farnesyl pyrophosphate
(FPP) precursors (Arruda et al.
A subgroup of these agents known as aminobisphosphonates, which includes alendronate, also inhibits the osteoclastic enzyme known as farnesyl pyrophosphate
(FPP) synthase, thereby maximizing their antiresorptive potential.
Another effect of aminobisphosphonates is the inhibition of farnesyl pyrophosphate
synthase (FPPS), a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, which is the biosynthetic route for the production of cholesterol (Ann.
(FPP) is required for the activation of small guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding regulatory proteins.
In large part, the anti-inflammatory actions of statins result from the depletion of two biologically important cholesterol pathway intermediates, farnesyl pyrophosphate
(FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), which are required for posttranslational modification of small GTP-binding proteins (small GTPases) such as Ras (FPP) or Rac and Rho (GGPP) (Figure 3).
An obvious target for genetic engineering is the rubber transferase enzyme, the biological catalyst that polymerizes natural rubber from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), an allylic pyrophosphate (usually farnesyl pyrophosphate
, FPP, in vivo) being required to initiate the reaction.
Recently, bisphosphonates have been proposed as novel antiparasitic drugs, and Yan Ling (UIUC, Urbana) reported the cloning and characterization of Toxoplasma gondii farnesyl pyrophosphate
synthase, the target of these compounds.
Schaefer, better anticancer drugs might come from compounds that act on another cholesterol precursor, farnesyl pyrophosphate
, which derives from mevalonate and serves to "glue" ras to cell membranes.