an agent or element that contributes to the production of a result.
angiogenesis factor a substance that causes the growth of new blood vessels, found in tissues with high metabolic requirements such as cancers and the retina. It is also released by hypoxic macrophages at the edges or outer surface of a wound and initiates revascularization in wound healing.
a preparation of factor VIII
administered intravenously for the prevention or treatment of hemorrhage in patients with hemophilia A
and the treatment of von Willebrand disease
, and coagulation factor XIII
deficiency. Included are preparations derived from human plasma (antihemophilic factor, cryoprecipitated antihemophilic factor) or porcine plasma (antihemophilic factor [porcine]) and those produced by recombinant technology antihemophilic factor [recombinant]).
antihemorrhagic factor vitamin K.
antinuclear factor (ANF) antinuclear antibody.
antirachitic factor vitamin D.
atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) a hormone produced in the cardiac atrium; an inhibitor of renin secretion and thus of the production of angiotensin, and a stimulator of aldosterone release. Its effect is increased excretion of water and sodium and a lowering of blood pressure.
component that participates in the alternative complement pathway.
in the theory of human caring
, a set of ten factors that offer a descriptive topology of interventions including (1) a humanistic-altruistic system of values; (2) faith-hope; (3) sensitivity to self and others; (4) a helping-trusting, human care relationship; (5) the expression of positive and negative feelings; (6) a creative problem-solving caring process; (7) transpersonal teaching and learning; (8) a supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical, societal, and spiritual environment; (9) human needs assistance; and (10) existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces.
C3 nephritic factor
(C3 NeF) an autoantibody that stabilizes the alternative complement
pathway C3 convertase, preventing its inactivation by factor h
, resulting in complete consumption of plasma C3; it is found in the serum of many patients with type II membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
a factor that when activated serves as a serine
esterase in the alternative complement
decay accelerating factor
(DAF) a protein of most blood as well as endothelial and epithelial cells, CD55 (see CD antigen
); it protects the cell membranes from attack by autologous complement
endothelial-derived relaxant factor
(endothelial-derived relaxing factor
) (endothelium-derived relaxing factor
(EDRF)) nitric oxide
F factor (fertility factor) F plasmid.
growth factor any substance that promotes skeletal or somatic growth; usually a mineral, hormone, or vitamin.
system regulatory protein that inhibits the alternative pathway of complement activation.
(HF) factor XII
, one of the coagulation factors
. See illustration.
Activation of Hageman factor (factor XII) leads to increased vascular permeability, clotting, and thrombolysis. From Damjanov, 2000.
hematopoietic growth f's a group of substances with the ability to support hematopoietic colony formation in vitro, including erythropoietin, interleukin-3, and colony-stimulating factors. All except erythropoietin stimulate mature cells, have overlapping capabilities to affect progenitor cells of several blood cell lines, and also affect cells outside the hematopoietic system.
(HRF) a lymphokine
, believed to be produced by macrophages and B lymphocytes, that induces the release of histamine by IgE-bound basophils. It occurs in late phase allergic reaction, six or more hours after contact with the antigen, in sensitive individuals.
homologous restriction factor
(HRF) a regulatory protein that binds to the membrane attack complex
in autologous cells, inhibiting the final stages of complement
a plasma enzyme that regulates both classical and alternative pathways of complement
activation by inactivating their C3 convertases.
immunoglobulin-binding factor (IBF) a lymphokine having the ability to bind IgG complexed with antigen and prevent complement activation.
insulinlike growth f's (IGF) insulinlike substances in serum that do not react with insulin antibodies; they are growth hormone–dependent and possess all the growth-promoting properties of the somatomedins.
intensification factor in radiology, the comparative increase in light transmission when films are exposed in the presence of intensifying screens compared to that in the absence of screens.
a glycoprotein secreted by the parietal cells of the gastric glands, necessary for the absorption of cyanocobalamin
). Its absence results in pernicious anemia
LE factor an immunoglobulin that reacts with leukocyte nuclei, found in the serum in systemic lupus erythematosus.
lymph node permeability factor (LNPF) a substance from normal lymph nodes that produces vascular permeability.
lymphocyte mitogenic factor
(LMF) (lymphocyte-transforming factor
) a substance that is released by lymphocytes
stimulated by specific antigen and causes nonstimulated lymphocytes to undergo blast transformation and cell division; called also blastogenic factor
macrophage-activating factor (MAF) interferon-α.
macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) a lymphokine that attracts macrophages to the invasion site.
macrophage-derived growth factor a substance released by macrophages below the surface of a wound that induces the proliferation of fibroblasts.
migration inhibition factor
(migration inhibitory factor
) a lymphokine
that inhibits macrophage
minification factor in radiology, the gain in light achieved by a reduction in size of the output phosphor from the input phosphor size.
osteoclast-activating factor (OAF) a lymphokine that stimulates bone resorption; it may be involved in the bone resorption associated with multiple myeloma and other hematologic neoplasms or inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease.
(PAF) a substance released by basophils and mast cells in immediate hypersensitivity
reactions, and by macrophages and neutrophils in other inflammatory reactions; it leads to bronchoconstriction, platelet aggregation, and release of vasoactive substances from platelets.
platelet-derived growth factor a substance contained in platelets and capable of inducing proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and glial cells; its action contributes to the repair of damaged vascular walls.
releasing f's factors elaborated in one structure (as in the hypothalamus) that effect the release of hormones from another structure (as from the anterior pituitary gland), including corticotropin-releasing factor, melanocyte-stimulating hormone–releasing factor, and prolactin-releasing factor. Applied to substances of unknown chemical structure, while substances of established chemical identity are called releasing hormones.
a type of agglutinogen found on some erythrocytes; see also rh factor
rheumatoid factor (RF) antibodies directed against antigenic determinants on IgG molecules, found in the serum of about 80 per cent of patients with classic or definite rheumatoid arthritis; but in only about 20 per cent of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; rheumatoid factors may be IgM, IgG, or IgA antibodies, although serologic tests measure only IgM. Rheumatoid factors also occur in other connective tissue diseases and infectious diseases.
risk factor an agent or situation that is known to make an individual or population more susceptible to the development of a specific negative condition.
risk factor (omaha)
an environmental, psychosocial, or physiologic event or health related behavior that increases the client's exposure or vulnerability to the development of a client problem
; the nurse's knowledge base of risk factors is used to identify potential problem modifiers
in the Problem Classification scheme
of the omaha system.
sun protection factor (SPF) a numerical rating of the amount of protection afforded by a sunscreen; the higher the number, the more protection is provided.
(TF) a factor occurring in sensitized lymphocytes that can transfer delayed hypersensitivity to a formerly nonreactive individual; see also transfer factor
tumor necrosis factor
(TNF) either of two lymphokines
produced primarily by cells of the immune system
, capable of causing in vivo hemorrhagic necrosis of certain tumor cells but not normal cells. They also destroy cells associated with the inflammatory response
. They have been used as experimental anticancer agents but can also induce shock
when bacterial endotoxins cause their release. Tumor necrosis factor α,
formerly called cachectin,
contains 157 amino acids and is produced by macrophages, eosinophils, and NK cells. Tumor necrosis factor β
and contains 171 amino acids.
vascular endothelial growth factor
(VEGF) (vascular permeability factor
(VPF)) a peptide factor that stimulates the proliferation of cells of the endothelium
of blood vessels; it promotes tissue vascularization
and is important in blood vessel formation in tumors.
von Willebrand's factor
(vWF) a glycoprotein synthesized in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes that circulates complexed to coagulation factor
VIII. It is involved in adhesion of platelets to damaged epithelial surfaces and may participate in platelet aggregation. Deficiency results in the prolonged bleeding time seen in von Willebrand's disease
Patient discussion about factor I
Q. What Are the Risk Factors for Developing Stroke? My father had a stroke recently, at the age of 73. What are the risk factors for developing this?
A. Primary risk factors include:
2) excessive alcohol intake
3) uncontrolled high blood pressure
4) high cholesterol
5) overweight/unhealthy diet
6) illegal drugs/abuse of Rx drugs
7) known or unknown heart problems
9) known or unknown vascular brain defects - aneurysm, etc.
10)family history of stroke
Q. Regarding risk-factor assessment? Hello, I am……….., I heard ACSM has recently issued a new edition of its exercise guidelines. Were any changes made regarding risk-factor assessment?
A. Are you fitness professional? I understand that you are very much interested in food guidelines. It can be difficult to keep up with the latest guidelines and standards. This is particularly true this year, which has seen new USDA Food Guidelines in January, a revised Food Pyramid in May and, most recently, the release of the 7th edition of ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. The good news is that the ACSM risk factors have been minimally revised. For your reference, here is a summary of what has and has not changed for the 2006 edition.
Q. Is obesity a risk factor for Dementia?
A. The answer is YES. In fact, many of the risk factors for heart disease, such as high blood pressure, blood glucose levels, insulin resistance, and overweight, are also risk factors for dementia, in addition to genetic predisposition for the disease.More discussions about factor I