facial paralysis


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Related to facial paralysis: Bell's palsy, Bells palsy, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, stroke, Moebius syndrome

paralysis

 [pah-ral´ĭ-sis] (pl. paral´yses.)
Loss or impairment of motor function in a part due to a lesion of the neural or muscular mechanism; also, by analogy, impairment of sensory function (sensory paralysis). Paralysis is a symptom of a wide variety of physical and emotional disorders rather than a disease in itself. Called also palsy.
Types of Paralysis. Paralysis results from damage to parts of the nervous system. The kind of paralysis resulting, and the degree, depend on whether the damage is to the central nervous system or the peripheral nervous system.

If the central nervous system is damaged, paralysis frequently affects the movement of a limb as a whole, not the individual muscles. The more common forms of central paralysis are hemiplegia (in which one entire side of the body is affected, including the face, arm, and leg) and paraplegia (in which both legs and sometimes the trunk are affected). In central paralysis the tone of the muscles is increased, causing spasticity.

If the peripheral nervous system is damaged, individual muscles or groups of muscles in a particular part of the body, rather than a whole limb, are more likely to be affected. The muscles are flaccid, and there is often impairment of sensation.
Causes of Central Paralysis. stroke syndrome is one of the most common causes of central paralysis. Although there is usually some permanent disability, much can be done to rehabilitate the patient. Paralysis produced by damage to the spinal cord can be the result of direct injuries, tumors, and infectious diseases. Paralysis in children may be a result of failure of the brain to develop properly in intrauterine life or of injuries to the brain, as in the case of cerebral palsy. Congenital syphilis may also leave a child partially paralyzed. Paralysis resulting from hysteria has no organic basis and is a result of emotional disturbance or mental illness.
Causes of Peripheral Paralysis. Until the recent development of immunizing vaccines, the most frequent cause of peripheral paralysis in children was poliomyelitis. neuritis, inflammation of a nerve, can also produce paralysis. Causes can be physical, as with cold or injury; chemical, as in lead poisoning; or disease states, such as diabetes mellitus or infection. Paralysis caused by neuritis frequently disappears when the disorder causing it is corrected.
paralysis of accommodation paralysis of the ciliary muscles of the eye so as to prevent accommodation.
paralysis a´gitans Parkinson's disease.
ascending paralysis spinal paralysis that progresses upward.
birth paralysis that due to injury received at birth.
brachial paralysis paralysis of an upper limb from damage to the brachial plexus.
bulbar paralysis that due to changes in motor centers of the medulla oblongata; the chronic form is marked by progressive paralysis and atrophy of the lips, tongue, pharynx, and larynx, and is due to degeneration of the nerve nuclei of the floor of the fourth ventricle.
central paralysis any paralysis due to a lesion of the brain or spinal cord.
cerebral paralysis paralysis caused by an intracranial lesion; see also cerebral palsy.
compression paralysis that caused by pressure on a nerve.
conjugate paralysis loss of ability to perform some parallel ocular movements.
crossed paralysis paralysis affecting one side of the face and the other side of the body.
crutch paralysis brachial paralysis caused by pressure from a crutch.
decubitus paralysis paralysis due to pressure on a nerve from lying for a long time in one position.
divers' paralysis decompression sickness.
Erb-Duchenne paralysis paralysis of the upper roots of the brachial plexus due to destruction of the fifth and sixth cervical roots, without involvement of the small muscles of the hand. Called also Erb's palsy.
facial paralysis weakening or paralysis of the facial nerve, as in bell's palsy.
familial periodic paralysis a hereditary disease with recurring attacks of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis, associated with a fall in (hypokalemic type), a rise in (hyperkalemic type), or normal (normokalemic type) serum potassium levels; all three types are inherited as autosomal dominant traits.
flaccid paralysis paralysis with loss of muscle tone of the paralyzed part and absence of tendon reflexes.
immunologic paralysis former name for immunologic tolerance.
infantile paralysis the major form of poliomyelitis.
infantile cerebral ataxic paralysis a congenital condition due to defective development of the frontal regions of the brain, affecting all extremities.
ischemic paralysis local paralysis due to stoppage of circulation.
Klumpke's paralysis (Klumpke-Dejerine paralysis) atrophic paralysis of the lower arm and hand, due to lesion of the eighth cervical and first dorsal thoracic nerves.
Landry's paralysis Guillain-Barré syndrome.
lead paralysis severe peripheral neuritis with wristdrop, due to lead poisoning.
mixed paralysis combined motor and sensory paralysis.
motor paralysis paralysis of the voluntary muscles.
musculospiral paralysis Saturday night paralysis.
obstetric paralysis birth paralysis.
periodic paralysis
1. any of various diseases characterized by episodic flaccid paralysis or muscular weakness.
progressive bulbar paralysis the chronic form of bulbar paralysis; called also Duchenne's disease or paralysis.
pseudobulbar muscular paralysis pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy.
pseudohypertrophic muscular paralysis pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy.
radial paralysis Saturday night paralysis.
Saturday night paralysis paralysis of the extensor muscles of the wrist and fingers, so called because of its frequent occurrence in alcoholics. It is most often due to prolonged compression of the radial (musculospiral) nerve, and, depending upon the site of nerve injury, is sometimes accompanied by weakness and extension of the elbow. Called also musculospiral or radial paralysis.
sensory paralysis loss of sensation resulting from a morbid process.
sleep paralysis paralysis occurring at awakening or sleep onset; it represents extension of the atonia of REM sleep into the waking state and is often seen in those suffering from narcolepsy or sleep apnea. Called also waking paralysis.
spastic paralysis paralysis with rigidity of the muscles and heightened deep muscle reflexes and tendon reflexes.
spastic spinal paralysis lateral sclerosis.
tick paralysis progressive ascending flaccid motor paralysis following the bite of certain ticks, usually Dermacentor andersoni; first seen in children and domestic animals in the northern Pacific region of North America, and now seen in other parts of the world.
Volkmann's paralysis ischemic paralysis.
waking paralysis sleep paralysis.

fa·cial pa·ral·y·sis

paresis or paralysis of the facial muscles, usually unilateral, due to either a lesion involving either the nucleus or the facial nerve peripheral to the nucleus (peripheral facial paralysis) or a supranuclear lesion in the cerebrum or upper brainstem (central facial paralysis); with the latter, facial weakness is usually partial and the upper portion of the face is relatively spared, because of bilateral cortical connections.

facial paralysis

an abnormal condition characterized by the partial or total loss of the functions of the facial muscles or the loss of sensation in the face. It may be caused by disease or by trauma. The degree of paralysis depends on the nerves affected. Brain injury above the facial nerve nucleus usually does not block the innervation of the brow and the forehead muscles. Injury to the nucleus of the facial nerve or injury to its peripheral neurons paralyzes all the ipsilateral facial muscles. See also Bell's palsy.

fa·cial pa·ral·y·sis

(fā'shăl păr-al'i-sis)
Paresis or paralysis of the facial muscles, usually unilateral, due to either a lesion involving the nucleus of the facial nerve or a supranuclear lesion in the cerebrum or upper brainstem.
See also: Bell palsy
Synonym(s): facial palsy, facioplegia, prosopoplegia.

Fallopius,

Gabriele, Italian anatomist, 1523-1562.
fallopian aqueduct - the bony passage in the temporal bone through which the facial nerve passes. Synonym(s): facial canal; fallopian canal
fallopian arch - Synonym(s): fallopian ligament
fallopian artery
fallopian canal - Synonym(s): fallopian aqueduct
fallopian cannula
fallopian catheter
fallopian hiatus - the opening on the anterior aspect of the petrous part of the temporal bone which leads to the facial canal and gives passage to the greater petrosal nerve. Synonym(s): hiatus of facial canal
fallopian ligament - forms the floor of the inguinal canal and gives origin to lowermost fibers of internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles. Synonym(s): fallopian arch; inguinal ligament
fallopian neuritis - Synonym(s): facial paralysis
fallopian pregnancy - Synonym(s): tubal pregnancy
fallopian tube - one of the tubes leading on either side from the upper or outer extremity of the ovary to the fundus of the uterus. Synonym(s): tuba fallopiana; tuba fallopii; uterine tube;
tuba fallopiana - Synonym(s): fallopian tube
tuba fallopii - Synonym(s): fallopian tube

fa·cial pa·ral·y·sis

(fā'shăl păr-al'i-sis)
Paresis or paralysis of facial muscles, usually unilateral, due to either a lesion involving either nucleus or facial nerve peripheral to nucleus or supranuclear lesion in cerebrum or upper brainstem. Causes include Bell palsy, stroke, brain tumor, sarcoidosis, Lyme disease, infection, and birth trauma in affected newborns.
Synonym(s): facial palsy, facioplegia.

facial

of or pertaining to the face.

facial abscess
see malar abscess.
facial cleft
very uncommon congenital defect of failure of closure at various facial sites, e.g. cleft from corner of mouth to ear on the same side.
facial dermatitis
see contagious porcine pyoderma.
facial eczema
hepatogenous photosensitization in sheep and cattle, by the ingestion of sporidesmin from the the fungus Pithomyces chartarum. It grows best on litter in pasture composed of plants with heavy leaf growth, e.g. perennial rye and white clover. Many animals die early because of the hepatic insufficiency combined with the widespread tissue damage.
facial fold dermatitis
see fold dermatitis.
facial hyperostosis
idiopathic facial dermatosis of Persian cats
inflammation of the periocular, perioral skin and sometimes chin associated with the accumulation of black material matting the skin. External ear canals may also become involved. The cause is unknown.
facial nerve
the seventh cranial nerve; its motor fibers supply the muscles of facial expression. These are a complex group of cutaneous muscles that move the eyebrows, eyelids, ears, corners of the mouth, and other parts of the face. The sensory fibers of the facial nerve provide a sense of taste in the forward two-thirds of the tongue, and also supply the submaxillary, sublingual and lacrimal glands for secretion. See also Table 14.
facial nerve root granuloma
chronic, inflammatory disease in calves characterized by space-occupying, granulomatous lesions on the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves and clinical signs of facial paralysis and balance abnormalities.
facial paralysis
characterized by unilateral signs related to facial movements and asymmetry of the face. There is droopiness of the ear and an inability to move it, drooping of the eyelid, sagging and drooping of the lower lip and deviation of the nose to the normal side.
Enlarge picture
Facial paralysis in a horse. By permission from Knottenbelt DC, Pascoe RR, Diseases and Disorders of the Horse, Saunders, 2003
facial sinus
see malar abscess.
facial sinusitis
infection and inflammation occurs secondarily to rhinitis or to damage to a horn or dehorning. Neoplasia of a horn core may extend into the sinus.
facial tumor disease
see tasmanian devil facial tumor disease.

paralysis

loss or impairment of motor function in a part due to a lesion of the neural or muscular mechanism; also, by analogy, impairment of sensory function (sensory paralysis). Called also palsy. Motor paralysis may be expressed as flaccid, in the case of lower motor neuron lesion, or spastic, in the case of an upper motor neuron lesion. See also paraplegia, quadriplegia, hemiplegia and paralyses of individual cranial and peripheral nerves.

paralysis of accommodation
paralysis of the ciliary muscles of the eye so as to prevent accommodation.
anal paralysis
manifested by flaccidity and lack of tone of the anal sphincter, and loss of house training restraint in companion animals.
antepartum paralysis
pressure on sciatic nerves by a large fetus in late pregnancy in a cow can cause posterior paralysis that is cured by a cesarean section.
ascending paralysis
spinal paralysis that progresses forwards involving first the hindlimbs then the forelimbs, then the intercostal muscles, then the diaphragm, and finally the muscles of the neck.
birth paralysis
that due to injury received by the neonate at birth.
bladder paralysis
manifested by fullness of the bladder and response to manual pressure. See also motor paralytic urinary bladder.
cage paralysis
see thiamin nutritional deficiency.
central paralysis
any paralysis due to a lesion of the brain or spinal cord.
cerebral paralysis
paralysis caused by some intracranial lesion.
Chastek paralysis
see thiamin nutritional deficiency.
compression paralysis
that caused by pressure on a nerve.
congenital paralysis
paralysis of the newborn. Many cases are due to birth trauma especially when lay persons exert excessive traction. Other causes are enzootic ataxia, inherited congenital paraplegias in calves and pigs, spina bifida and spinal dysraphism and occipito-alanto-axial malformations in foals and puppies.
conjugate paralysis
loss of ability to perform some parallel ocular movements.
coonhound paralysis
see idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis.
crossed paralysis
paralysis affecting one side of the head and the other side of the body.
curled toe paralysis
a disease of poultry caused by a nutritional deficiency of riboflavin. See also curled toe paralysis.
decubitus paralysis
paralysis due to pressure on a nerve from lying for a long time in one position.
esophageal paralysis
manifested by inability to swallow, and regurgitation.
facial paralysis
weakening or paralysis of the facial nerve. See also facial paralysis.
flaccid paralysis
paralysis characterized by loss of voluntary movement, decreased tone of limb muscles, absence of tendon reflexes and neurogenic atrophy.
immunological paralysis
the absence of immune response to a specific antigen. See also tolerance.
infectious bulbar paralysis
ischemic paralysis
local paralysis due to stoppage of circulation.
lambing paralysis
maternal obstetric paralysis in the ewe.
laryngeal paralysis
see laryngeal hemiplegia.
mixed paralysis
combined motor and sensory paralysis.
motor paralysis
paralysis of the voluntary muscles.
nerve paralysis
paralysis caused by damage to the local motor nerve supply. See also peripheral nerve paralysis (below).
obstetric paralysis
see maternal obstetric paralysis.
partial paralysis
see paresis.
peripheral nerve paralysis
the part deprived of its peripheral nerve supply shows flaccid paralysis, absence of spinal reflexes, muscle atrophy and a subnormal temperature.
postcalving paralysis
see maternal obstetric paralysis.
posterior paralysis
paralysis of the hindlimbs, tail and perineum. See also paraplegia.
range paralysis
sensory paralysis
loss of sensation resulting from a morbid process.
spastic paralysis
paralysis with rigidity of the muscles and heightened deep muscle reflexes.
tongue paralysis
see hypoglossal nerve paralysis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Static procedures are often considered to be the procedures of choice for the management of the eye in facial paralysis.
They discuss cardiopulmonary exercise testing in preoperative assessment, perioperative care, biologic and composite mesh for repair, the management of facial paralysis, anal cancer, bariatric surgery, liver metastases, ischemic bowel, intraoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer, abdominal tuberculosis, the diabetic foot, benign breast conditions, breast reconstruction, and randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses in surgery.
The surgery would have been quite invasive and risked causing damage, such as the possibility of facial paralysis, total hearing loss, or facial palsy" David added.
If the facial nerve palsy is not treated with steroids, the likelihood of permanent facial paralysis is increased.
Botox is a safe, complication-free treatment that has been proven successful in curing diseases such as muscle stiffness caused by a stroke, spinal cord injuries, migraine facial paralysis and inconsistency in hand muscle movement," said Dr Susan.
DROOPY EYELID Possible cause: Bell's palsy or stroke It can indicate Bell's palsy, a temporary facial paralysis, and can also be a symptom of a stroke.
scared i'd had a stroke I went to a&e, where I was diagnosed with Bell's palsy, facial paralysis caused by damage to the facial nerve - probably a result of exposure to the cold before it had fully healed.
It is the most common form of facial paralysis that occurs when the facial nerve becomes damaged or inflamed.
The symptoms shown in the meningoencephalitic form include fever, depression, head pressing, problems with eating and possible facial paralysis.
Padilla, who lost sight in one eye and has partial facial paralysis after a terrifying goring, returned to the bullring on Sunday, five months after his injury