extrathyroidal

extrathyroidal

/ex·tra·thy·roi·dal/ (-thi-roid´'l) outside or not involving the thyroid gland.
References in periodicals archive ?
Extrathyroidal extension is associated with a worse prognosis.
Poor prognostic factors of PTM include that LN involvement at presentation, large tumor size, older age, male sex, multifocality and the presence of extrathyroidal extension (7-9).
They cover signs and symptoms; the genetic, immune system, and environmental aspects of pathology in hyperthyroid disorders; coexisting conditions like nodular disease and vitamin B12 deficiency; conventional treatments; alternative and complementary therapies; hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, the postpartum period, and children and adolescents; and Graves' ophthalmopathy and other extrathyroidal manifestations, such as euthyroid Graves' disease, pretibial myxedema, and thyroid acropachy.
Evidence for an inhibitor of extrathyroidal conversion of thyroxine to 3,5,3'-triidothyronine in sera of patients with nonthyroidal illnesses.
Its association with more aggressive tumor characteristics, such as extrathyroidal extension, advanced tumor stage at presentation, and lymph node or distant metastases, has been found in most studies involving large series of patients, although some observations have not reported such an association (reviewed by Xing (42)).
RAI indicates radioactive iodine; XRT, external beam radiotherapy; ETE, extrathyroidal extension.
An extrathyroidal artery that feeds the parathyroid adenoma is commonly noted by sonography with both colour and power Doppler, and its visualisation helps in the parathyroid delineation.
But there is growing evidence that iodine provides important extrathyroidal benefits when taken in milligram amounts, in doses 100 times more than its RDI.
They also reverse or block thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy, (13,14) and are weak inhibitors of extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3.
It is the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease.