extrapyramidal


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extrapyramidal

 [eks″trah-pĭ-ram´ĭ-d'l]
outside the pyramidal tracts.
extrapyramidal disease (extrapyramidal syndrome) any of a group of clinical disorders marked by abnormal involuntary movements, alterations in muscle tone, and postural disturbances; the group includes parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, and others.
extrapyramidal system a functional, rather than anatomical, unit comprising the nuclei and fibers (excluding those of the pyramidal tract) involved in motor activities; they control and coordinate especially the postural, static, supporting, and locomotor mechanisms. It includes the corpus striatum, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and red nucleus, along with their interconnections with the reticular formation, cerebellum, and cerebrum; some authorities include the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei. Called also extrapyramidal tract.

ex·tra·py·ram·i·dal

(eks'tră-pi-ram'i-dăl),
Other than the pyramidal tract. See: extrapyramidal motor system.

extrapyramidal

/ex·tra·py·ram·i·dal/ (-pĭ-ram´ĭ-d'l) outside the pyramidal tracts; see under system.

extrapyramidal

(ĕk′strə-pĭ-răm′ĭ-dl)
adj.
Relating to or involving neural pathways situated outside or independent of the pyramidal tracts.

extrapyramidal

[ek′strəpiram′ədəl]
Etymology: L, extra + Gk, pyramis, pyramid
1 pertaining to the tissues and structures outside the cerebrospinal pyramidal tracts of the brain that are associated with movement of the body, excluding motor neurons, the motor cortex, and the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
2 pertaining to the function of these tissues and structures.

extrapyramidal

adjective Referring to that which occurs outside of the pyramidal system of the brain.

ex·tra·py·ram·i·dal

(eks'tră-pir-am'i-dăl)
Outside or not involving the pyramidal tract of the central nervous system.

extrapyramidal

outside the pyramidal tracts.

extrapyramidal disease, extrapyramidal syndrome
any of a group of clinical disorders marked by abnormal involuntary movements, alterations in muscle tone, and postural disturbances.
extrapyramidal motor system
see extrapyramidal system (below).
extrapyramidal system
a functional, rather than anatomical, unit comprising the nuclei and fibers (excluding those of the pyramidal tract) involved in motor activities; they control and coordinate especially the postural, static, supporting and locomotor mechanisms. It includes the corpus striatum, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and red nucleus, along with their interconnections with the reticular formation, cerebellum and cerebrum; some authorities include the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei. Called also extrapyramidal motor system.
References in periodicals archive ?
Symptoms following atypical antipsychotics include fewer extrapyramidal symptoms, reduced creatine kinase elevations, reduced muscle rigidity, and frequent mild fever.
Manifestations of this increased sensitivity include confusion, obtundation, postural instability with frequent falls, extrapyramidal symptoms, and clinical features consistent with the neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Baseline extrapyramidal signs were the only significant factor associated with progression to non-Alzheimer's forms of dementia (hazard ratio, 6.
The last patient who was the first cousin of above children was symptomatic in early twenties with extrapyramidal and behaviour disturbances and now she is bedridden.
Ziprasidone###80-160###Sedation, autonomic side effects, extrapyramidal side effects
The course of tardive dystonia in Afro Caribbean patients, a population-based study: the Curacao extrapyramidal syndromes study: VII.
Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions: The most common adverse reactions (incidence [greater than or equal to] 5% and at least twice the rate of placebo) in patients treated with LATUDA were somnolence, akathisia, extrapyramidal symptoms, and nausea.
Her psychotic symptoms were significantly improved but she subsequently developed extrapyramidal symptoms and tachycardia, which abated after starting adjunctive treatment with trihexyphenidyl 6 mg/d and propranolol 20 mg/d.
Do MRI features distinguish Wilson's disease from other early onset extrapyramidal disorders?
It is used as an adjunct in the therapy of all forms of parkinsonism and also for the control of extrapyramidal disorders because of neuroleptic drugs, except tardive dyskinesia.
This is a key component of the extrapyramidal motor system (the pyramidal motor system refers to neuronal pathways extending from the motor cortex to the skeletal muscles used for movement; the extrapyramidal system modulates and regulates pyramidal function).
Tissue iron levels in the extrapyramidal system of earlier- and later-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects were evaluated in vivo using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method.