extrapyramidal


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Related to extrapyramidal: akathisia, Extrapyramidal syndrome, Extrapyramidal effects

extrapyramidal

 [eks″trah-pĭ-ram´ĭ-d'l]
outside the pyramidal tracts.
extrapyramidal disease (extrapyramidal syndrome) any of a group of clinical disorders marked by abnormal involuntary movements, alterations in muscle tone, and postural disturbances; the group includes parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, and others.
extrapyramidal system a functional, rather than anatomical, unit comprising the nuclei and fibers (excluding those of the pyramidal tract) involved in motor activities; they control and coordinate especially the postural, static, supporting, and locomotor mechanisms. It includes the corpus striatum, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and red nucleus, along with their interconnections with the reticular formation, cerebellum, and cerebrum; some authorities include the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei. Called also extrapyramidal tract.

ex·tra·py·ram·i·dal

(eks'tră-pi-ram'i-dăl),
Other than the pyramidal tract. See: extrapyramidal motor system.

extrapyramidal

/ex·tra·py·ram·i·dal/ (-pĭ-ram´ĭ-d'l) outside the pyramidal tracts; see under system.

extrapyramidal

(ĕk′strə-pĭ-răm′ĭ-dl)
adj.
Relating to or involving neural pathways situated outside or independent of the pyramidal tracts.

extrapyramidal

[ek′strəpiram′ədəl]
Etymology: L, extra + Gk, pyramis, pyramid
1 pertaining to the tissues and structures outside the cerebrospinal pyramidal tracts of the brain that are associated with movement of the body, excluding motor neurons, the motor cortex, and the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
2 pertaining to the function of these tissues and structures.

extrapyramidal

adjective Referring to that which occurs outside of the pyramidal system of the brain.

ex·tra·py·ram·i·dal

(eks'tră-pir-am'i-dăl)
Outside or not involving the pyramidal tract of the central nervous system.

extrapyramidal

outside the pyramidal tracts.

extrapyramidal disease, extrapyramidal syndrome
any of a group of clinical disorders marked by abnormal involuntary movements, alterations in muscle tone, and postural disturbances.
extrapyramidal motor system
see extrapyramidal system (below).
extrapyramidal system
a functional, rather than anatomical, unit comprising the nuclei and fibers (excluding those of the pyramidal tract) involved in motor activities; they control and coordinate especially the postural, static, supporting and locomotor mechanisms. It includes the corpus striatum, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and red nucleus, along with their interconnections with the reticular formation, cerebellum and cerebrum; some authorities include the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei. Called also extrapyramidal motor system.
References in periodicals archive ?
Bipolar mania: The incidences within the recommended dose range (VRAYLAR 3 -- 6 mg/day vs placebo) were: extrapyramidal symptoms (26% vs 12%), akathisia (20% vs 5%), dyspepsia (7% vs 4%), vomiting (10% vs 4%), somnolence (7% vs 4%), and restlessness (7% vs 2%)
The course of tardive dystonia in Afro Caribbean patients, a population-based study: the Curacao extrapyramidal syndromes study: VII.
Extrapyramidal symptoms were observed in 36% on a first-generation agent, 12% on a second-generation agent, and 28% on the combination.
Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS) are usually persistent movement disorders or muscle disturbances, such as restlessness, tremors, and muscle stiffness.
A recent study by researchers in the working group, Drugs in Psychiatry (German acronym, AGATE), found heterogeneity in drugs within both classes in terms of rates of extrapyramidal side effects in 6,061 inpatients, leading to the conclusion that the odds of inducing such effects were "not distinguishable" by class (Neuropsychobiology 2008;57:80-7).
Verma starts patients on olanzapine and moves next to quetiapine, if necessary He recommends trying risperidone only if the other two agents fail because it has a higher risk of adverse effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms and a prolactin effect.
During the study, the most commonly observed adverse reactions (incidence of greater than or equal to 5% for adjunctive ABILIFY and at least twice the rate of adjunctive placebo) associated with adjunctive ABILIFY were: akathisia (adjunctive ABILIFY: 19%; adjunctive placebo: 5%), insomnia (adjunctive ABILIFY: 8%; adjunctive placebo: 4%) and extrapyramidal disorder (adjunctive ABILIFY: 5%; adjunctive placebo: 1%).
Treatment with LY2140023 was not observed to have certain adverse events that often occur with currently approved schizophrenia medications, including increased prolactin elevations, extrapyramidal symptoms (involuntary movements or muscle stiffness), or weight gain.
IM Geodon has the advantage of having "equal or better efficacy" than the short-acting antipsychotics used for decades in treating acute agitation in patients with a wide range of diagnoses, but it has far fewer side effects, particularly extrapyramidal symptoms, Dr Casey said.
Recent Phase 2a data demonstrate that BL-1020 is effective with no significant change in weight and no increase in extrapyramidal symptoms.
The most common adverse event with aripiprazole was insomnia (18%); the most common adverse event with haloperidol was extrapyramidal syndrome.
Olanzapine may increase somnolence and gait instability but not extrapyramidal symptoms.