Orbital decompression does not solve the problem of pre-operative diplopia, and a relevant rate of patients will need a subsequent extraocular muscle
The extraocular muscles
are innervated by the ocular motoneurons which lie in the brainstem nuclei of the third, fourth and sixth cranial nerves.
We could not find any case of extraocular muscle
paralysis related to snake bite among our national publications related to snake bite.
Because the eyelids remain intact and the process does not reach the deep orbital and perioptic-nerve connective tissues, visual acuity may not be affected and ocular motility is generally well preserved unless the extraocular muscles
Enlargement and fibrosis of the extraocular muscles
leads to restricted eye movements.
Graves ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune disease in which the volume of both the extraocular muscles
and retro-orbital connective tissues is increased.
The orientation of a globe may be determined by identifying extraocular muscle
insertions, optic nerve, and other landmarks as illustrated in Figure 1.
Owing to the findings of mild ptosis, proptosis, swelling, small esotropia, and reduced visual fields threshold in the right eye, the patient was referred to the HES on a 'soon' basis (to be seen within four weeks), via her GP, suspecting thyroid problems affecting the extraocular muscles
or a lacrimal gland problem.
Roy, an ophthalmologist in private practice who specializes in cataract surgery, provides students, research fellows, optometrists, ophthalmologists, and eye care practitioners with a guide listing the differential diagnosis of specific ocular diseases, organized by anatomic organ--the orbit, lids, lacrimal system, extraocular muscles
, conjunctiva, globe, sclera, cornea, anterior chamber, pupil, iris, lens, vitreous, retina, choroid, and optic nerve--in addition to visual field defects and intraocular pressure and ending with a section on general signs and symptoms such as visual disturbance or complaint and head position.
Cranial osteopathy focused on the sphenobasilar joint and the most likely places for intracranial entrapment neuropathy of oculomotor, trochlearis, and abducens nerves, which regulate intra- and extraocular muscles
Shared auto-antigens against the extraocular muscles
and thyroid trigger a cascade of events leading to involvement of extraocular muscles
Strabismus Surgery for Children and Adults - Surgery on the extraocular muscles
to correct crossing or wandering eyes