This review will focus on the extra-articular
causes of musculoskeletal groin pain, focusing on the diagnostic and treatment algorithms of sports hernia, osteitis pubis, and adductor dysfunction.
anatomical plate for distal humerus extra-articular
Osteoporosis (OP) is considered to be an extra-articular
manifestation of RA, (1) with the prevalence of OP being higher in RA patients than in the general population.
Various causes, associated with either the shoulder joint or extra-articular
structures, may lead to the clinical outcome of this complaint (2,3).
5 for RA patients when they fulfill two out of the following three criteria: disease duration greater than 10 years, rheumatoid factor or anti--cyclic citrullinated peptide positivity, and extra-articular
33,34] Indications for biologic therapy include an inadequate response to synthetic DMARD therapy, with high disease activity (SDAI >26), or moderate disease activity (SDAI 11-26) in the presence of poor prognostic factors (seropositivity, radiographic erosions within the first two years, extra-articular
complications or functional disability).
They discuss alignment and malalignment, its assessment, and frontal, sagittal, and rotational alignment; finding anatomical landmarks in the normal and arthritic knee; biomechanics; the impact of the foot on weight-bearing alignment; the intra-articular impact of extra-articular
alignment deformity; navigation in arthroplasty; Mimics software; patient-specific instruments; MRI and CT-based cutting and pinning guides; kinematically-aligned arthroplasty with MRI-based cutting guides; individualized total knee arthroplasty; unicompartmental arthroplasty with patient-specific guides and instruments; robotic knee arthroplasty; patient-matched robotic uniconylar arthroplasty; patient-specific instruments as a teaching tool; and soft tissue-based alignment.
Patients with high-grade scapula and peri-scapular sarcomas may now be treated with either an extra-articular
scapula resection (including the lateral clavicle and proximal humerus), termed a Tikhoff-Linberg resection or an intra-articular total scapulectomy (4,5).
The latter term encompasses both intra-articular and extra-articular
tumors (see below).
5) The commonest error is the attribution of pain from extra-articular
(contractile) structures as originating from the joint itself (inert structures).
Attempted MR arthrography, with resultant extra-articular
contrast extravasation, accounts for the increased signal within the left iliopsoas muscle as seen on the axial images (arrow in Fig.
16) Complete tears of the MCL will demonstrate discontinuity of the MCL complex and extra-articular
leakage of contrast into adjacent soft tissues.