The authors claim their results suggest an increased risk of cancer among children exposed to external dose
rates of background ionizing radiation of [greater than or equal to] 200 nSv/h (1.
Elevated indoor external dose rates may arise from high radionuclide content in building materials (Chen and Lin, 1996; Stoulos et al.
No external dose rate from the ground surrounding the room is taken into account.
However building exposure geometry varies according to building design and material used, hence there are no adopted standard indoor external dose conversion factors.
This study is a deliberate effort to verify this assumption using two of the most common Nigeria rural building (mud houses) designs by comparing conversion factors for indoor external dose in the houses with the corresponding outdoor values.
The most critical unknown in the Techa river dose reconstruction data is the external dose
Suppose that data are available on an apical response X as a function of blood serum concentration C of a toxin rather than the external dose
Meeting these new challenges requires a public health approach (Goldstein 1995), including an enhanced scientific capability to measure exposure in the target human or ecosystem rather than at the end of the pipe, a better understanding of the relation between external dose
and target organ toxicity, and translation of advances in analytical chemistry and molecular biology to develop better biological indicators of exposure, effect, and susceptibility.
We classified all the municipalities on the basis of external dose
rate to form population fifths with roughly similar population sizes.
For those 44 workers never monitored for external radiation exposure, we assumed an external dose
of 0 mSv.
1) Busby, Scientific Secretary of the European Committee on Radiation Risk (ECRR), points out that the ICRP model "deals with radiation exposure from all sources in the same way, as if it were external to the body," (2) and then takes this dose and multiplies it by a risk factor based on the high acute external doses
of the atomic-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Their study provides important insight into the effects of environmental chemicals on health-related end points and addresses the mechanistic questions of how chemicals with hormonal activity can have effects at external doses
that are often considered safe by the regulatory community.